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Gifts In Psychotherapy

Resources

This resource page is part of an Online Course
Gifts In Psychotherapy: Ethical & Clinical Considerations

CE Credit Hours for Psychologists. CE Credit Hours (CEUs) for LMFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.
CE Approvals by BBS-CA, ASWB, NBCC, NAADAC, CA-BRN & more.
Zur Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Zur Institute maintains responsibility for this program and its content.

 

 

Resources

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Guidelines

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Codes of Ethics and Regulations

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References that Frown Upon Gift Giving in Therapy

  • Even though most codes of ethics do not consider accepting gifts from clients as unethical (most do not even mention it in the code) some therapists view it in negative terms:
    • In the Room: It claims that:
      • Gifts in general should not be accepted although see the debate below
      • The trick is to acknowledge and accept the meanings behind the gift but not the gift itself.

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Additional References

  • American Association for Marriage and Family Therapists. (2012). AAMFT Code of ethics. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from: https://www.aamft.org/iMIS15/AAMFT/Content/Legal_Ethics/code_of_ethics.aspx.
  • American Counseling Association (ACA), (2014). Codes of Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf.
  • American Indian Mental Health Advisory Council. (2004). Cultural Competency Guidelines For the Provision of Clinical Mental Health Services To American Indians In the State of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://edocs.dhs.state.mn.us/lfserver/Legacy/DHS-4086-ENG.
  • American Psychological Association (2016). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
  • Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW) (2004) Codes of Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.aasw.asn.au/adobe/about/AASW_Code_of_Ethics-2004.pdf
  • Australian Institute of Welfare and Community Workers (AIWCW). (1999). Code of Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.aiwcw.org.au/
  • Australian Psychological Society (APS) (2003) Codes of Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.org.au/Assets/Files/code_of_ethics.pdf
  • Bader, M.J. (1996). Altruistic Love in Psychoanalysis Opportunities and Resistance. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 6 (6),741-764.
  • Bailey, D. S. (2004) Approaching ethical dilemmas. Monitor On Psychology, 35 (9), 62.
  • Barnett, J.E. & Bivings, N.D. (2002). Culturally sensitive treatment and ethical practice. The Maryland Psychologist, 48 (2), 8, 25.
  • Barnett, J. & Barteck, K. (2009). Thanks, That's Just What I wanted: Psychotherapy, Gifts and Ethical Practices. Independent Practitioner, Spring, 73-77.
  • Blanco, P. J., Muro, J. H., & Stickley, V. K. (2014). Understanding the concept of genuineness in play therapy: Implications for the supervision and teaching of beginning play therapists. International Journal of Play Therapy, 23(1), 44-54.
  • Blanton, S (1971). Diary of My Analysis with Sigmund Freud. New York: Hawthorn Books.
  • Borys, D. S. (1992). Nonsexual dual relationships. In L. Vandecreek, S. Knapp, & T. L. Jackson (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 11. (pp. 443-454). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.
  • Borys, D. S., & Pope, K. S. (1989). Dual relationships between therapist and client: A national study of psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 283-293.
  • Brendel, D.H., Chu J, Radden, J., Leeper, H., Pope, H. G., Samson, I.,, Tsimprea, G., and Bodkin, J. A. (2007). price of a gift: an approach to receiving gifts from patients in psychiatric practice. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 15 (2):43-51
  • Brown, C. and Trangsrud, H. B. (2008). Factors Associated With Acceptance and Decline of Client Gift Giving. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39 (5), 505 511.
  • Bursten B. (1959) The expressive value of gifts. American Imago, 16/4, 437-446.
  • Caddell, A. & Hazelton, L. (2013) Accepting gifts from patients. Canadian Family Physician. 59(12): 1259-1260.
  • Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA). (2007). Code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.ccacc.ca/coe.htm
  • Canadian Psychological Association CPA). (2000). Code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.cpa.ca/docs/File/Ethics/cpa_code_2000_eng_jp_jan2014.pdf
  • Carp, F. M. (1974). Reactions to gifts as indicators of personality-behavior traits in the elderly. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 5(3), 265-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/D4GX-UH8R-QR4A-8KWL
  • Cheal, D. J. (1986). The Social Dimensions of Gift Behaviour. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 3(4), 423-439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407586034002
  • Cheal, D. J. (1996). 'Gifts in contemporary North America', in C. Otnes and R. F. Beltramini (eds) Gift Giving: A Research Anthology, Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, pp. 85–97.
  • Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callahan, P. (2003). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (6th Edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Corey, G., Corey, M. S., Corey, C., & Callanan, P. (2014). Issues and ethics in the helping professions with 2014 ACA codes. Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole. .
  • Dictionary.com (2005). Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=gift&r=67.
  • Dineen, T. (1996). Manufacturing victims: What the psychology industry is doing to people. Toronto: Robert Davies Publishing.
  • Duke Energy. (2004). Gifts, Meals, Services & Entertainment: Duke Energy's Code of Business Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.duke-energy.com/investors/governance/ethics/gifts.asp.
  • Epstein, R. S., Simon, R. I., & Kay, G. G. (1992). Assessing boundary violations in psychotherapy: Survey results with the exploitation index. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 56, 150-166.
  • Feminist Therapy Institute. (1999). Feminist therapy code of ethics. Denver: Author. Retrieved from http://www.feminist-therapy-institute.org/ethics.htm
  • Gabbard, G. O. (1994). Teetering on the precipice: A commentary on Lazarus's "How certain boundaries and ethics diminish therapeutic effectiveness." Ethics and Behavior, 4 (3), 283-286.
  • Gabbard and Nadelson (1995). Professional Boundaries in the physician-patient relationships. Journal of American Medical Association. 273 (18), 1445-1449.
  • Geric, M. S. (2014) Receiving gifts from clients: ethical and therapeutic issues. The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Receiving+gifts+from+clients%3a+ethical+and+therapeutic+issues.-a0119314835
  • Gerson, A. & Fox, D. D. (1999). Boundary violations: The Gray Area. Journal of Forensic Psychology, 7, (2), 57-61.
  • Goldbart, S. & DiFuria, J. (2002). The Money Preferences Guide. Kentfield, CA: Money, Meaning And Choices Institute.
  • Grohol, J. (2010). Exchanging gifts with your therapist. The world of Psychology. Retrieved from https://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2010/12/13/exchanging-gifts-with-your-therapist/
  • Gutheil, T. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: Theoretical and risk-management dimensions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 188-196.
  • Gutheil, T. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1998). Misuses and misunderstandings of boundary theory in clinical and regulatory settings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155 (3), 409-414.
  • Hahn, W. K. (1998) Gifts in Psychotherapy: An Intersubjective Approach to Patient Gifts. Psychotherapy; Theory/Research/Practice/Training, 35 (1), 78-86.
  • Harris, E. (2004). Dual perspectives on dual relationships. Norcross, J. (Chair). Symposium presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (APA), Hawaii, July.
  • Hundert, E. M. (1998). Looking a gift horse in the mouth: The ethics of gift-giving in psychiatry. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 6, 114– 117.
  • Knox, S. (2008). Gifts in Psychotherapy: Practice Review and Recommendations. Psychotherapy Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45/1: 103-110.
  • Knox, S., Hess, S. A., Williams, E. N., & Hill, C. E. (2003). “Here's a little something for you”: How therapists respond to client gifts. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 199–210.
  • Kritzberg, N. I. (1980). On patients' gift-giving. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 16, 98–118.
  • Jain, S., & Weiss Roberts, L. (2009). Ethics in Psychotherapy: A Focus on Professional Boundaries and Confidentiality Practices. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32(2), 299–314. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2009.03.005
  • Knox, S., DuBois, R., Smith, J., Hess, S. A., & Hill, C. E. (2009). Clients' experiences giving gifts to therapists. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46, 350-361.
  • Knox, S., Hess, S. A., Williams, E. N., & Hill, C. E. (2003). Here's a little something for you: How therapists respond to clients gifts. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 199-210.
  • Koocher, G. P., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). Exchanging gifts and favors. In Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: Standards and cases (3rd Ed.) (292-295). New York, NY: Oxford University Press
  • Kritzberg, N.I. (1980) On patients' gift-giving. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 16:98-118.
  • Ladouceur, R. (2013) Should family physicians accept gifts from patients? Canadian Family Physician, 59/12: 1254.
  • Lambert, M. J. (1991). Introduction to psychotherapy research. In L. E. Beutler and M. Crago, Psychotherapy Research. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 1-11.
  • Lazarus, A. A. (1994). How certain boundaries and ethics diminish therapeutic effectiveness. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 253--261.
  • Levin, S., & Wermer, H. (1966). The significance of giving gifts to children in therapy. Journal of the Academy of Child Psychiatry, 5, 630–652.
  • Lazarus, A. A. and Zur, O. (Eds.) (2002). Dual Relationships and Psychotherapy. New York: Springer.
  • McGrath, M. A. (1995). Gender differences in gift exchanges: New directions from projections. Psychology & Marketing, 12(5), 371-393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.4220120503
  • Nathan, T. (1994). The Healing Influence. Paris: Odile Jacob.
  • National Association for Addiction Professionals (NAADAC). (2011). Code of Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.naadac.org/code-of-ethics
  • Needleman, J. (1991). Money and the meaning of life. New York: Doubleday.
  • Newsome, J. (2015) An Ethical Dilemma: When Therapy Clients Give Gifts. Psychotherapy Networker. Retrieved from https://www.psychotherapynetworker.org/blog/details/517/an-ethical-dilemma-when-therapy-clients-give-gifts
  • Norcross, J. C. and M. R. Goldfried, M. R. (Eds.) (1992). Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration. New York: Basic Books.
  • Otnes, C., & Beltramini, R. F. (1996). Gift-giving: A research anthology. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, pp. 3–15.
  • Polster, (2001). D. S. (2001). Gifts. In American Psychiatric Association Ethics Primer. DC: ApA.
  • Pope, K. S. (1990). Therapist-patient sexual contact: Clinical, legal, and ethical implications. In Margenau, E.A. The encyclopedia handbook of private practice. pp. 687-696. New York: Gardner Press, Inc.
  • Pope, K. S., Keith-Spiegel, P & Tabachnick, B. G. (1986). Sexual Attraction to Clients: The Human Therapist and the (Sometimes) Inhuman Training System. American Psychologist, 41, (2), pages 147-15
  • Pope, K. S., Tabachnick, B. G., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (1987). Ethics of practice: The beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as therapists. American Psychologist, 42, 993-1006.
  • Pope, K. S., Tabachnick, B. G., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (1987). Ethics of practice: The beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as therapists. American Psychologist, 42, 993-1006.
  • Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia (PACFA). (2001). Codes of Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.pacfa.org.au/pacfa_committee_ethics.html
  • Refugee Mental Health In The United States (2004). A Cry For Help. Retrieved from http://www.refugees.org/world/articles/mentalhlth_rr97_9.htm.
  • Reid, W. H. (1998). Standard of care and patient need. The Journal of Psychiatric Practice, May. Retrieved from www.reidpsychiatry.com/columns/Reid05-98.pdf.
  • Reidbord, R. (2010) . Should therapists accept holiday gifts? Psychology Today. Dec.
  • Reist D. & VandeCreek, L. (2004). The Pharmaceutical Industry's Use of Gifts and Educational Events to Influence Prescription Practices: Ethical Dilemmas and Implications for Psychologist. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35 (4), 329-335,
  • Ruth, J. A. (1996). It's the feeling that counts: Toward an understanding of emotion and its influence on gift-exchange processes. In C.Otnes & R. F.Beltramini (Eds.), Gift-giving: A research anthology (pp. 195–214). Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press
  • Saad, G. & Gill, T. (2003). An Evolutionary Psychology Perspective on Gift-giving among Young Adults. Psychology & Marketing, 20 (9), 765-784.
  • Shapiro, E. L., & Ginzberg, R. (2002). Parting gifts: Termination rituals in group therapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 52, 319–336.
  • Shelton, K. (2016). Is It Ever Appropriate to Give or Accept a Gift in Therapy? GoodThrapy.org Retrieved from https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/is-it-ever-appropriate-to-give-or-accept-gift-in-therapy-1222165
  • Silber, A. (1969). A patient's gift: its meaning and function. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 50(3), 335-41.
  • Simon, R. I. (1991). Psychological injury caused by boundary violation precursors to therapist-patient sex. Psychiatric Annals, 21, 614-619.
  • Smolar, A. M. (2003) When We Give More: Reflections on Intangible Gifts from Therapist to Patient. American Journal of Psychotherapy , 57, 3, 300-323.
  • Spandler, H., Burman, E., Goldberg, B., Margison, F., and Amos, T. (2000). A Double edged Sword: Understanding Gifts in Psychotherap,y European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counseling and Health 3(1) 77-101.
  • Srivastava, A. & Grover, N. (2016). Reflections about being offered gifts in psychotherapy: A descriptive case study. Psychological Studies, 61(1), 83-86. doi:10.1007/s12646-015-0350-6
  • Stein, H. (1965). The gift in therapy, American Journal of Psychotherapy 19/3, 480-486.
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  • Tabachnick, B. G., Keith-Spiegel, P., & Pope, K. S. (1991). Ethics of teaching: Beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as educators. American Psychologist, 46, 506-515.
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  • Zur, O. (Ed.) (2017). Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.

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