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Gifts In Psychotherapy

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An Online Course:
Gifts In Psychotherapy: Ethical & Clinical Considerations



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  • Bader, M.J. (1996). Altruistic Love in Psychoanalysis Opportunities and Resistance. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 6 (6),741-764.
  • Bailey, D. S. (2004) Approaching ethical dilemmas. Monitor On Psychology, 35 (9), 62.
  • Barnett, J.E. & Bivings, N.D. (2002). Culturally sensitive treatment and ethical practice. The Maryland Psychologist, 48 (2), 8, 25.
  • Barnett, J. & Barteck, K. (2009). Thanks, That's Just What I wanted: Psychotherapy, Gifts and Ethical Practices. Independent Practitioner, Spring, 73-77.
  • Blanco, P. J., Muro, J. H., & Stickley, V. K. (2014). Understanding the concept of genuineness in play therapy: Implications for the supervision and teaching of beginning play therapists. International Journal of Play Therapy, 23(1), 44-54.
  • Blanton, S (1971). Diary of My Analysis with Sigmund Freud. New York: Hawthorn Books.
  • Borys, D. S. (1992). Nonsexual dual relationships. In L. Vandecreek, S. Knapp, & T. L. Jackson (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book, Vol. 11. (pp. 443-454). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.
  • Borys, D. S., & Pope, K. S. (1989). Dual relationships between therapist and client: A national study of psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 283-293.
  • Brendel, D.H., Chu J, Radden, J., Leeper, H., Pope, H. G., Samson, I.,, Tsimprea, G., and Bodkin, J. A. (2007). price of a gift: an approach to receiving gifts from patients in psychiatric practice. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 15 (2):43-51
  • Brown, C. and Trangsrud, H. B. (2008). Factors Associated With Acceptance and Decline of Client Gift Giving. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39 (5), 505 511.
  • Bursten B. (1959) The expressive value of gifts. American Imago, 16/4, 437-446.
  • Caddell, A. & Hazelton, L. (2013) Accepting gifts from patients. Canadian Family Physician. 59(12): 1259-1260.
  • Carp, F. M. (1974). Reactions to gifts as indicators of personality-behavior traits in the elderly. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 5(3), 265-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/D4GX-UH8R-QR4A-8KWL
  • Cheal, D. J. (1986). The Social Dimensions of Gift Behaviour. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 3(4), 423-439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407586034002
  • Cheal, D. J. (1996). 'Gifts in contemporary North America', in C. Otnes and R. F. Beltramini (eds) Gift Giving: A Research Anthology, Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, pp. 85–97.
  • Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callahan, P. (2003). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (6th Edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Corey, G., Corey, M. S., Corey, C., & Callanan, P. (2014). Issues and ethics in the helping professions with 2014 ACA codes. Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole. .
  • Dictionary.com (2005). Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=gift&r=67.
  • Dineen, T. (1996). Manufacturing victims: What the psychology industry is doing to people. Toronto: Robert Davies Publishing.
  • Duke Energy. (2004). Gifts, Meals, Services & Entertainment: Duke Energy's Code of Business Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.duke-energy.com/investors/governance/ethics/gifts.asp.
  • Epstein, R. S., Simon, R. I., & Kay, G. G. (1992). Assessing boundary violations in psychotherapy: Survey results with the exploitation index. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 56, 150-166.
  • Furman, J. (2014a) The Psychology of Christmas Gift Giving. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sideways-view/201412/the-psychology-christmas-gift-giving
  • Furnham, A. (2014b). Ladouceur, R. (2013) Should family physicians accept gifts from patients? Canadian Family Physician, 59/12: 1254>
  • Gabbard and Nadelson (1995). Professional Boundaries in the physician-patient relationships. Journal of American Medical Association. 273 (18), 1445-1449.
  • Geric, M. S. (2014) Receiving gifts from clients: ethical and therapeutic issues. The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Receiving+gifts+from+clients%3a+ethical+and+therapeutic+issues.-a0119314835
  • Gerson, A. & Fox, D. D. (1999). Boundary violations: The Gray Area. Journal of Forensic Psychology, 7, (2), 57-61.
  • Goldbart, S. & DiFuria, J. (2002). The Money Preferences Guide. Kentfield, CA: Money, Meaning And Choices Institute.
  • Grohol, J. (2010). Exchanging gifts with your therapist. The world of Psychology. Retrieved from https://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2010/12/13/exchanging-gifts-with-your-therapist/
  • Gutheil, T. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: Theoretical and risk-management dimensions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 188-196.
  • Gutheil, T. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1998). Misuses and misunderstandings of boundary theory in clinical and regulatory settings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155 (3), 409-414.
  • Hahn, W. K. (1998) Gifts in Psychotherapy: An Intersubjective Approach to Patient Gifts. Psychotherapy; Theory/Research/Practice/Training, 35 (1), 78-86.
  • Harris, E. (2004). Dual perspectives on dual relationships. Norcross, J. (Chair). Symposium presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (APA), Hawaii, July.
  • Hundert, E. M. (1998). Looking a gift horse in the mouth: The ethics of gift-giving in psychiatry. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 6, 114– 117.
  • Jain, S., & Weiss Roberts, L. (2009). Ethics in Psychotherapy: A Focus on Professional Boundaries and Confidentiality Practices. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32(2), 299–314. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2009.03.005
  • Knox, S. (2008). Gifts in Psychotherapy: Practice Review and Recommendations. Psychotherapy Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45/1: 103-110.
  • Knox, S., DuBois, R., Smith, J., Hess, S. A., & Hill, C. E. (2009). Clients' experiences giving gifts to therapists. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46, 350-361.
  • Knox, S., Hess, S. A., Williams, E. N., & Hill, C. E. (2003). “Here's a little something for you”: How therapists respond to client gifts. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 199–210.
  • Koocher, G. P., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). Exchanging gifts and favors. In Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: Standards and cases (3rd Ed.) (292-295). New York, NY: Oxford University Press
  • Kritzberg, N.I. (1980) On patients' gift-giving. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 16:98-118.
  • Ladouceur, R. (2013) Should family physicians accept gifts from patients? Canadian Family Physician, 59/12: 1254.
  • Lambert, M. J. (1991). Introduction to psychotherapy research. In L. E. Beutler and M. Crago, Psychotherapy Research. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 1-11.
  • Lazarus, A. A. (1994). How certain boundaries and ethics diminish therapeutic effectiveness. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 253--261.
  • Levin, S., & Wermer, H. (1966). The significance of giving gifts to children in therapy. Journal of the Academy of Child Psychiatry, 5, 630–652.
  • Lazarus, A. A. and Zur, O. (Eds.) (2002). Dual Relationships and Psychotherapy. New York: Springer.
  • Martínez-Taboas, A. et.al. (2014).  Gifts in psychotherapy: Attitudes and experiences of Puerto Rican psychotherapists.  Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología [RePS], 25/2, 328 – 339.
  • McGrath, M. A. (1995). Gender differences in gift exchanges: New directions from projections. Psychology & Marketing, 12(5), 371-393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.4220120503
  • Nathan, T. (1994). The Healing Influence. Paris: Odile Jacob.
  • Needleman, J. (1991). Money and the meaning of life. New York: Doubleday.
  • Newsome, J. (2015) An Ethical Dilemma: When Therapy Clients Give Gifts. Psychotherapy Networker. Retrieved from https://www.psychotherapynetworker.org/blog/details/517/an-ethical-dilemma-when-therapy-clients-give-gifts
  • Norcross, J. C. and M. R. Goldfried, M. R. (Eds.) (1992). Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration. New York: Basic Books.
  • Otnes, C., & Beltramini, R. F. (1996). Gift-giving: A research anthology. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, pp. 3–15.
  • Polster, (2001). D. S. (2001). Gifts. In American Psychiatric Association Ethics Primer. DC: ApA.
  • Pope, K. S., Tabachnick, B. G., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (1987). Ethics of practice: The beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as therapists. American Psychologist, 42, 993-1006.
  • Reamer, F. (2003) Boundary issues in social work: Managing dual relationships. Social Work, 48(1), 121-133.
  • Reamer, F. (2013). 'Tis the Season: Managing Client Gifts, Eye on Ethics. Social Work Today. December.
  • Reid, W. H. (1998). Standard of care and patient need. The Journal of Psychiatric Practice, May. Retrieved from www.reidpsychiatry.com/columns/Reid05-98.pdf.
  • Reidbord, R. (2010) . Should therapists accept holiday gifts? Psychology Today. Dec.
  • Reist D. & VandeCreek, L. (2004). The Pharmaceutical Industry's Use of Gifts and Educational Events to Influence Prescription Practices: Ethical Dilemmas and Implications for Psychologist. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35 (4), 329-335,
  • Ruth, J. A. (1996). It's the feeling that counts: Toward an understanding of emotion and its influence on gift-exchange processes. In C.Otnes & R. F.Beltramini (Eds.), Gift-giving: A research anthology (pp. 195–214). Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press
  • Saad, G. & Gill, T. (2003). An Evolutionary Psychology Perspective on Gift-giving among Young Adults. Psychology & Marketing, 20 (9), 765-784.
  • Shapiro, E. L., & Ginzberg, R. (2002). Parting gifts: Termination rituals in group therapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 52, 319–336.
  • Shelton, K. (2016). Is It Ever Appropriate to Give or Accept a Gift in Therapy? GoodThrapy.org Retrieved from https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/is-it-ever-appropriate-to-give-or-accept-gift-in-therapy-1222165
  • Shen, H., Wen, F., & Wyer, R. S. (2011). Cross-cultural differences in the refusal to accept a small gift: The differential influence of reciprocity norms on Asian and North Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 271-281
  • Silber, A. (1969). A patient's gift: its meaning and function. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 50(3), 335-41.
  • Smolar, A. M. (2003) When We Give More: Reflections on Intangible Gifts from Therapist to Patient. American Journal of Psychotherapy , 57, 3, 300-323.
  • Spandler, H., Burman, E., Goldberg, B., Margison, F., and Amos, T. (2000). A Double edged Sword: Understanding Gifts in Psychotherap,y European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counseling and Health 3(1) 77-101.
  • Srivastava, A. & Grover, N. (2016). Reflections about being offered gifts in psychotherapy: A descriptive case study. Psychological Studies, 61(1), 83-86. doi:10.1007/s12646-015-0350-6
  • Stein, H. (1965). The gift in therapy, American Journal of Psychotherapy 19/3, 480-486.
  • Tabachnick, B. G., Keith-Spiegel, P., & Pope, K. S. (1991). Ethics of teaching: Beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as educators. American Psychologist, 46, 506-515.
  • Talan, K. H. (1989) Gifts in psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 44, 149-163.
  • Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1992). Psychological foundations of culture. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 19-136). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Trimble, J. E. (2002). Counseling across Cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Welfel, E. R. (2002). Ethics in Counseling and Psychotherapy: Standards, Research and Emerging Issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Williams, M. H. (1997). Boundary violations: Do some contended standards of care fail to encompass commonplace procedures of humanistic, behavioral, and eclectic psychotherapies? Psychotherapy, 34 (3), 238-249.
  • Williams, M. H., (2003). The curse of risk management. The Independent Practitioner, 23 (4), 202-205.
  • Zur, O. (2004). To Cross or Not to Cross: Do boundaries in therapy protect or harm. The Psychotherapy Bulletin, 39 (3), 27-32, 2004.
  • Zur, O. (2006). Therapeutic Boundaries and Dual Relationships in Rural Practice: Ethical, Clinical and Standard of Care Considerations. Journal of Rural Community Psychology, V. E9/1.
  • Zur, O. (2007a). Boundaries in Psychotherapy: Ethical and Clinical Explorations. Washington, DC: APA Books
  • Zur, O.(2007b). Boundaries in Psychotherapy, Ethical and Clinical Exploration. Panel Presentation (chair and presenter) at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (APA), San Francisco, CA, August.
  • Zur, O. (2012). Gifts in Therapy: Some are Appropriate. National Psychologist, Sept./Oct. p. 6
  • Zur, O. (2015). Therapists Giving And Receiving Gifts During The Holidays. Retrieved from
  • Zur, O. (2016). Professional Organizations' Codes of Ethics On Gifts in Psychotherapy & Counseling. Retrieved from https://www.zurinstitute.com/ethics_of_gifts_in_therapy.html
  • Zur, O. (Ed.) (2017a). Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.
  • Zur, O. (2017b). The Standard of Care in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Shedding Clarity on an Illusive Standard. Online publication by O. Zur, Ph.D. Retrieved from https://www.zurinstitute.com/standardofcaretherapy.html

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