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Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM)

Resources

 

Online Resources

The psychodynamic diagnostic manual – PDM 2nd Edition - Order

The psychodynamic diagnostic manual – 2nd edition (PDM-2)

Overview of the PDM

Table of Contents of PDM

Introduction to PDM

Sponsoring Organizations, Steering Committee, and PDM Task Force

DSM: Diagnosing for Money and Power - Summary of the Critique of the DSM
    By Ofer Zur, Ph.D. and Nola Nordmarken, MFT:

Top of Page

 

References

Akhtar, S. (1989). Narcissistic personality disorder: Descriptive features and differential diagnosis. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12, 3.

American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-III. Washington, DC.

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-III-R. Washington, DC

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV. Washington, DC.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-TR . Washington, DC.

American Psychological Association. (2004). Rethinking the DSM: Psychological Perspective. Ed. Beutler, L. & Malik, M. Washington, DC.

Baumann, B. D., Hilsenroth, M. J., Ackerman, S. J., Baity, M. R., Smith, C. L., Smith, S. R. et al. (2001). The capacity for dynamic process scale: An examination of reliability, validity, and relation to therapeutic alliance. Psychotherapy Research, 11, 275-294.l

Bellak, L., Hurvich, M., & Gediman, H. (1973). Ego functions in schizophrenics, neurotics, and normals. New York: Wiley.

Berliner, B. (1958). The role of object relations in moral masochism. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 27, 38-56.

Blatt, S. J. (1998). Contributions of psychoanalysis to the understanding and treatment of depression. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 723-752.

Blatt, S. J. (2004). Experiences of depression: Theoretical, clinical, and research perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Blatt, S. J., & Bers, S. A. (1993). The sense of self in depression: A psychodynamic perspective. In Segal, Z. V. & Blatt, S. J. (Eds.) (1993). The self in emotional distress. Cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives. New York: Guilford Press.

Blatt, S. J. (in press). A fundamental polarity in psychoanalysis: Implications for personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process. Psychoanalytic Inquiry.

Bornstein, R. F. (1993). The dependent personality. New York: Guilford Press.

Braun, B. G. (1988). The BASK (behavior, affect, sensation, knowledge) model of dissociation. Dissociation 1: 4-23.

Brenner, I. (2001). Dissociation of trauma: Theory, phenomenology, and technique. New York: International Universities Press.

Bromberg, P. M. (2001). Standing in the spaces: Essays on clinical process, trauma, and dissociation. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.

Bursten, B. (1973). The manipulator: A psychoanalytic view. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Carey, B. (2006). For Therapy, a New Guide With a Touch of Personality, New York Times - Science. 1. 24. 2006.

Caplan, P. (1995). They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Who's Normal. Jackson, MI: DaCapo.

Cooper, A., & Ronningstam, E. (1992). In A. Tasman & M. Riba (Eds.), American Psychiatric Press review of psychiatry, vol. 2 (pp. 80-97). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Davies, J. M., & Frawley, M. G. (1993). Treating the adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: A psychoanalytic perspective. New York: Basic Books.

Davies, J. M., & Frawley, M. G. (1994). Treating the adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: A psychoanalytic perspective. New York: Basic Books.

Deutsch, H. (1942). Some forms of emotional disturbance and their relationship to schizophrenia. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 11, 301-321.

Doidge, N. (2001). Diagnosing The English Patient: Schizoid fantasies of being skinless and being buried alive. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 49, 279-309.

Ferber, A. (1959) (Reporter). Phobias and their vicissitudes. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 7, 182-192.

Finkelhor, D. (Ed.) (1986). A sourcebook on child sexual abuse. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fisher, S., & Greenberg, R. P. (1985). The scientific credibility of Freud's theories and therapy. New York: Columbia University Press.

Frank, J. D., Margolin, J., Nash, H. T., Stone, A. R., Varon, E., & Ascher, E. (1952). Two behavior patterns in therapeutic groups and their apparent motivation. Human Relations, 5, 289-317.

Freud, S. (1924). The economic problem of masochism. Standard Edition, 19, 159-170.

Freud, S. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms and anxiety. Standard Edition, 29, 75-175, 1959.

Fromm, E. (1973). The anatomy of human destructiveness. New York: Fawcett.

Gabbard, G. O. (1989). Two subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 53, 527-532.

Gacano, C., & Meloy, J. R. (1994). Rorschach assessment of aggressive and psychopathic personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Greenspan, S. I. (1997). Developmentally based psychotherapy. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.

Guntrip, H. (1969). Schizoid phenomena, object relations and the self. New York: International Universities Press.

Hanlon, Phyllis (2006). Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual offers new approach. New England Psychologist, Vol.14, No.2. March 2006. Retrieved May 29, 2006 from http://www.nepsych.com.

Henderson, D. K. (1939). Psychopathic states. London: Chapman & Hall.

Hilsenroth, M. J., Ackerman, S. J., Blagys, M. D., Baity, M. R., & Hurvich, M. (2003). The place of annihilation anxiety in psychoanalytic theory. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 51, 579-616.

Holt, S., Meloy, J. R., & Strack, S. (1999). Journal of American Academic Psychiatry and the Law, 27, 23-32.

Horowitz, M. J. (Ed.) (1991). Hysterical personality style and the histrionic personality disorder. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Horowitz, M. J. (1976). Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason Aronson Press.

Hunt, W. (1995). The diffident narcissist: A character-type illustrated in The Beast in the Jungle by Henry James. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 76, 1257-1267.

Kazarian, S. S., & Evans, D. R. (Eds.) (2001). Handbook of cultural health psychology. Philadelphia: Elsevier Science & Technology Books.

Karon, B. P. (2003). The tragedy of schizophrenia without psychotherapy. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31, 89-118.

Kernberg, O. F. (1967). Borderline personality organization. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15, 641-685.

Kernberg, O. F. (1975). Borderline conditions and pathological narcissism. New York: Jason Aronson.

Kernberg, O. F. (1984). Severe personality disorders: Psychotherapeutic strategies. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Kernberg, O. F. (1988). Clinical dimensions of masochism. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 36, 1005-1029.

Kirmayer, L. (1984). Culture, affect, and somatization. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 21, 160-169.

Klein, M. (1935). A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. In Love, guilt and reparation and other works, 1921-1945. New York, Free Press, 1975.

Kluft, R. (Ed.) (1985). Childhood antecedents of multiple personality. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Kohut, H. (1971). The analysis of the self: A systematic approach to the psychoanalytic treatment of the narcissistic personality disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Kohut, H. (1977). The restoration of the self. New York: International Universities Press.

Krystal, H. (1988). Integration and self-healing: Affect, trauma and alexithymia. Hillsdale NJ: The Analytic Press.

Lewinsohn, P., Rohde,P., Seeley, J.R., & Klein, D.N. (1997). Axis II psychopathology as a function of Axis I disorders in childhood and adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescence Psychiatry, 36, 1752-1759.

MacKinnon, R. A., & Michels, R. (1971), The psychiatric interview in clinical practice. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Marty, P., & M'Uzan, M. de (1963). La pensee operatoire. Revue Francaise de Psychoanalyse, 27 (Suppl.), 345-356.

Mooney, M. A. (2003). Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression: An examination of statistical, clinically significant, and technique-specific change. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 349-357.

Laughlin, H. P. (1956). The neuroses in clinical practice (pp. 394-406). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Leichsenring, F. & Leibing, E. (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1610, 1223-1232.

Lewinsohn, P., Rohde, P., Seeley, J.R., & Klein, D. N. (1997). Axis II psychopathology as a function of Axis I disorders in childhood and adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55 941-948.

Lingiardi, V., Shedler, J., & Gazzillo, F. (2005). Assessing personality change in psychotherapy with the SWAP-200: A case study. Under review.

McDougall, J. (1989). Theaters of the body: A psychoanalytic approach to psychosomatic illness. New York: Norton.

MacKinnon, R. A., & Michels, R. (1971), The psychiatric interview in clinical practice. Philadelphia: Saunders.

McHugh, P. (2005). Commentary: Striving for Coherence: Psychiatry's Efforts Over Classification. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 2526-2528.

McWilliams, N. (1994). Psychoanalytic diagnosis: Understanding personality structure in the clinical process. New York: Guilford.

Meissner, W. W. (1978). The paranoid process. New York: Jason Aronson.

Meloy, J. R. (1997). The psychology of wickedness: Psychopathy and sadism. Psychiatric Annals, 27, 630-633.

Menaker, E. (1953). Masochism - A defense reaction of the ego. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 22, 205-220.

Miller, A. (1975). Prisoners of childhood: The drama of the gifted child and the search for the true self. New York: Basic Books.

Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T., Caspi, A., & Silva, P.A. (1998). Comorbid mental disorders: Implications for treatment and sample selection. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 305-311.

Norcross, J. C. (2002). Empirically supported therapy relationships. In J.C.Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy Relationships that Work: Therapist Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients (pp. 3-16). London: Oxford.

Ogloff, J., & Wong, S. (1990). Electrodermal and cardiovascular evidence of a coping response in psychopaths. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17, 231-245.

OPD Working Group. (Ed.). (1996). Operationalized psychodynamic diagnostics foundation and manual. Seattle, WA: Hogrefe & Huber.

OPD Working Group. (Ed.). (2000). Operationalisierte Psychodynamische Diagnostic: Grundlagen und Manual. Bern: Huber.

PDM Task Force. (2006). The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM). Silver Spring, MD: Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations.

PDM Task Force. (2006, website) Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual. Retrieved June 15, 2006, from http://www.pdm1.org.

Perlman, S. D. (1999). The therapist's emotional survival: Dealing with the pain of exploring trauma. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Perring, C. Book Review - Rethinking the DSM. Retrieved May 29, 2006, from http://www.geminus.org/books/books.php?type=de&id=1848.

Read, J., Mosher, L. R., & Bentall, R. P. (Eds.) (2004). Models of madness: Psychological, social, and biological approaches to schizophrenia. East Sussex/New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Read, J., & Ross, C. A. (2003). Psychological trauma and psychosis: Another reason why people diagnosed schizophrenic must be offered psychological therapies. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31, 247-268.

Raine, A., Venables, P., & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 and criminality at age 24. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1003-1007.

Reich, W. (1933). Character analysis. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.

Reik, T. (1941). Masochism in modern man. New York: Farrar, Straus.

Rosenfeld, H. (1987). Afterthought: Changing theories and changing techniques in psychoanalysis. In Impasse and interpretation (pp. 265-279). London: Tavistock.

Sampson, H. (1992). The role of “real” experience in psychopathology and treatment. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 2, 509-528.

Salzman, L. (1980). Treatment of the obsessive personality. New York: Jason Aronson.

Schneider, W., Buchheim, P., Cierpka, M., Dahlbender, R.W., Freyberger, H.J., Grande, T., Hoffman, S.O., Heuft, G., Janssen, P.L., Kuechenhoff, J. Muhs, Rudolf, G. Rueger, U.,A., & Schuessler, G. (2004). Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics: A New Psychodynamic Approach in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. In Rethinking the DSM: A Psychological Perspective. Ed. Beutler, L. & Malik, M. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Schneider, W., Freyberger, H.J., Muhs, A., & Schuessler, G. (Hrsg). (1993). Diagnostik und Klassifikation nach ICD-10, Kap.V(F). Eine krirische Auseinandersetzung. Ergebnisse der ICD-10 Forschungskriterienstudie aus dem Bereich Psychosomatik/Psychotherapie. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Schneider, W. & Freyberger, H.J. (Hrsg). (2000). Was leisted die OPD: Empirische Befunde und klinische Erfahrungen mit der Operationalisierten Psychodynamischen Diagnostic. Bern: Huber.

Schreier, H. A., & Libow, J. A. (1993). Hurting for love: Munchausen by proxy syndrome. New York: Guilford Publications.

Schore, A. N. (2003). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. New York: Norton.

Seinfeld, J. (1991). The empty core: An object relations approach to psychotherapy of the schizoid personality. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Serin, R. (1991). Psychopathy and violence in criminals. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 423-431.

Silberschatz, G. (2005). Transformative relationships: The control-mastery theory of psychotherapy. New York: Routledge.

Shapiro, D. (1965). Neurotic styles. New York: Basic Books.

Shapiro, D. (1981). Autonomy and rigid character. New York: Basic Books.

Shedler, J., & Westen, D. (2004). Refining personality disorder diagnosis: Integrating science and practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1350-1365.

Spiegel, A. (2005). The dictionary of disorder: How one man revolutionized psychiatry. The New Yorker, 56-63.

Stern, D. B. (1997). Unformulated experience: From dissociation to imagination in psychoanalysis. Hillside, NJ: Analytic Press.

Stiles, W., Agnew-Davies, R., Hardy, G. E., Barkham, M., & Shapiro, D. (1998). Relations of the alliance with psychotherapy outcome: Findings in the second Sheffield Psychotherapy Project. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 791-802.

Stone, M. H. (1993). Abnormalities of personality: Within and beyond the realm of treatment. New York: Norton.

Terr, L. (1995). Unchained memories: True stories of traumatic memories, lost and found. New York: Basic Books.

Thompson, L., Gallagher, D., & Czirr, R. (1988). Personality disorder and outcome in the treatment of late-life depression. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 133-146.

Ulman, R. B., & Brothers, J. (1988). The shattered self: A psychoanalytic study of trauma. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Van der Kolk, B. A., McFarlane, A. C., & Weisaeth, L. (Eds.) (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.

Varvin, S. (2003). Mental survival strategies after extreme traumatisation. Copenhagen: Multivers.

Wallerstein, R. S. (1967). Reconstruction and mastery in the transference psychosis. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15, 551-583.

Wampold, B. E. (2001). The great psychotherapy debate - Models, methods and findings. Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.

Weiss, J. (1993). How psychotherapy works: Process and technique. New York: Guilford Press.

Weiss, J., Sampson, H., & the Mt. Zion Psychotherapy Research Group (1986). The psychoanalytic process: Theory, clinical observation, and empirical research. New York: Guilford Press.

Westen, D. & Arkowitz-Westen, L. (1998). Limitations of Axis II in diagnosing personality pathology in clinical practice. American Journal of Psychiatry. 155, 1767-1771.

Westen, D., Heim, A.K., Morrison, K., Patterson, M., & Campbell, L. (2004). Simplifying Diagnosis using a prototype-matching approach: implications for the next edition of the DSM. In Rethinking the DSM: A Psychological Perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Westen, D., Novotny, C. M., & Thompson-Brenner, H. (2004). The empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: Assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 631-663.

Westen, D., & Shedler, J. (1999b). Revising and assessing Axis II: Part 2: Toward an empirically based and clinically useful classification of personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 273-285.

Zetzel, E. (1968). The so-called good hysteric. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 49, 256-260.

Zur, O. (2005). HIPAA Compliance Kit: Understanding & Applying The Regulations in Psychotherapeutic Practice. New York: Norton.

Zur, O., Nordmarken, N. DSM: Diagnosing for Money and Power Summary of the Critique of the DSM. Retrieved May 29, 2006 from http://zurinstitute.com/dsmcritique.html.

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Books and Articles

American Psychological Association. (2004). Rethinking the DSM: Psychological Perspective. Ed. Beutler, L. & Malik, M. Washington, DC.

Blatt, S. J. (1998). Contributions of psychoanalysis to the understanding and treatment of depression. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 723-752.

Blatt, S. J. (2004). Experiences of depression: Theoretical, clinical, and research perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Blatt, S. J., & Bers, S. A. (1993). The sense of self in depression: A psychodynamic perspective. In Segal, Z. V. & Blatt, S. J. (Eds.) (1993). The self in emotional distress. Cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives. New York: Guilford Press.

Blatt, S. J. (in press). A fundamental polarity in psychoanalysis: Implications for personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process. Psychoanalytic Inquiry.

Bornstein, R. F. (1993). The dependent personality. New York: Guilford Press.

Brenner, I. (2001). Dissociation of trauma: Theory, phenomenology, and technique. New York: International Universities Press.

Bromberg, P. M. (2001). Standing in the spaces: Essays on clinical process, trauma, and dissociation. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.

Bursten, B. (1973). The manipulator: A psychoanalytic view. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Carey, B. (2006). For Therapy, a New Guide With a Touch of Personality, New York Times - Science. 1. 24. 2006.

Caplan, P. (1995). They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Who's Normal. Jackson, MI: DaCapo.

Fisher, S., & Greenberg, R. P. (1985). The scientific credibility of Freud's theories and therapy. New York: Columbia University Press.

Freud, S. (1924). The economic problem of masochism. Standard Edition, 19, 159-170.

Freud, S. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms and anxiety. Standard Edition, 29, 75-175, 1959.

Fromm, E. (1973). The anatomy of human destructiveness. New York: Fawcett.

Gabbard, G. O. (1989). Two subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 53, 527-532.

Gacano, C., & Meloy, J. R. (1994). Rorschach assessment of aggressive and psychopathic personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Guntrip, H. (1969). Schizoid phenomena, object relations and the self. New York: International Universities Press.

Henderson, D. K. (1939). Psychopathic states. London: Chapman & Hall.

Hilsenroth, M. J., Ackerman, S. J., Blagys, M. D., Baity, M. R., & Hurvich, M. (2003). The place of annihilation anxiety in psychoanalytic theory. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 51, 579-616.

Horowitz, M. J. (Ed.) (1991). Hysterical personality style and the histrionic personality disorder. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Horowitz, M. J. (1976). Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason Aronson Press.

Hunt, W. (1995). The diffident narcissist: A character-type illustrated in The Beast in the Jungle by Henry James. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 76, 1257-1267.

Karon, B. P. (2003). The tragedy of schizophrenia without psychotherapy. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31, 89-118.

Kernberg, O. F. (1967). Borderline personality organization. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15, 641-685.

Kernberg, O. F. (1975). Borderline conditions and pathological narcissism. New York: Jason Aronson.

Kernberg, O. F. (1984). Severe personality disorders: Psychotherapeutic strategies. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Kernberg, O. F. (1988). Clinical dimensions of masochism. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 36, 1005-1029.

Kirmayer, L. (1984). Culture, affect, and somatization. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 21, 160-169.

Klein, M. (1935). A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. In Love, guilt and reparation and other works, 1921-1945. New York, Free Press, 1975.

Kluft, R. (Ed.) (1985). Childhood antecedents of multiple personality. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Kohut, H. (1971). The analysis of the self: A systematic approach to the psychoanalytic treatment of the narcissistic personality disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Krystal, H. (1988). Integration and self-healing: Affect, trauma and alexithymia. Hillsdale NJ: The Analytic Press.

MacKinnon, R. A., & Michels, R. (1971), The psychiatric interview in clinical practice. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Laughlin, H. P. (1956). The neuroses in clinical practice (pp. 394-406). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Leichsenring, F. & Leibing, E. (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1610, 1223-1232.

Lingiardi, V., Shedler, J., & Gazzillo, F. (2005). Assessing personality change in psychotherapy with the SWAP-200: A case study. Under review.

MacKinnon, R. A., & Michels, R. (1971), The psychiatric interview in clinical practice. Philadelphia: Saunders.

McHugh, P. (2005). Commentary: Striving for Coherence: Psychiatry's Efforts Over Classification. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 2526-2528.

McWilliams, N. (1994). Psychoanalytic diagnosis: Understanding personality structure in the clinical process. New York: Guilford.

Meissner, W. W. (1978). The paranoid process. New York: Jason Aronson.

Meloy, J. R. (1997). The psychology of wickedness: Psychopathy and sadism. Psychiatric Annals, 27, 630-633.

Menaker, E. (1953). Masochism-A defense reaction of the ego. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 22, 205-220.

Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T., Caspi, A., & Silva, P.A. (1998). Comorbid mental disorders: Implications for treatment and sample selection. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 305-311.

Norcross, J. C. (2002). Empirically supported therapy relationships. In J.C.Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy Relationships that Work: Therapist Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients (pp. 3-16). London: Oxford.

Ogloff, J., & Wong, S. (1990). Electrodermal and cardiovascular evidence of a coping response in psychopaths. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17, 231-245.

OPD Working Group. (Ed.). (1996). Operationalized psychodynamic diagnostics foundation and manual. Seattle, WA: Hogrefe & Huber.

OPD Working Group. (Ed.). (2000). Operationalisierte Psychodynamische Diagnostic: Grundlagen und Manual. Bern: Huber.

PDM Task Force. (2006). The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM). Silver Spring, MD: Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations.

Perlman, S. D. (1999). The therapist's emotional survival: Dealing with the pain of exploring trauma. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Read, J., Mosher, L. R., & Bentall, R. P. (Eds.) (2004). Models of madness: Psychological, social, and biological approaches to schizophrenia. East Sussex/New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Read, J., & Ross, C. A. (2003). Psychological trauma and psychosis: Another reason why people diagnosed schizophrenic must be offered psychological therapies. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31, 247-268.

Raine, A., Venables, P., & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 and criminality at age 24. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1003-1007.

Reik, T. (1941). Masochism in modern man. New York: Farrar, Straus.

Rosenfeld, H. (1987). Afterthought: Changing theories and changing techniques in psychoanalysis. In Impasse and interpretation (pp. 265-279). London: Tavistock.

Sampson, H. (1992). The role of "real" experience in psychopathology and treatment. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 2, 509-528.

Salzman, L. (1980). Treatment of the obsessive personality. New York: Jason Aronson.

Schneider, W., Buchheim, P., Cierpka, M., Dahlbender, R.W., Freyberger, H.J., Grande, T., Hoffman, S.O., Heuft, G., Janssen, P.L., Kuechenhoff, J. Muhs, Rudolf, G. Rueger, U.,A., & Schuessler, G. (2004). Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics: A New Psychodynamic Approach in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. In Rethinking the DSM: A Psychological Perspective. Ed. Beutler, L. & Malik, M. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Schneider, W., Freyberger, H.J., Muhs, A., & Schuessler, G. (Hrsg). (1993). Diagnostik und Klassifikation nach ICD-10, Kap.V(F). Eine krirische Auseinandersetzung. Ergebnisse der ICD-10 Forschungskriterienstudie aus dem Bereich Psychosomatik/Psychotherapie. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Schneider, W. & Freyberger, H.J. (Hrsg). (2000). Was leisted die OPD: Empirische Befunde und klinische Erfahrungen mit der Operationalisierten Psychodynamischen Diagnostic. Bern: Huber.

Schreier, H. A., & Libow, J. A. (1993). Hurting for love: Munchausen by proxy syndrome. New York: Guilford Publications.

Schore, A. N. (2003). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. New York: Norton.

Seinfeld, J. (1991). The empty core: An object relations approach to psychotherapy of the schizoid personality. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Serin, R. (1991). Psychopathy and violence in criminals. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 423-431.

Silberschatz, G. (2005). Transformative relationships: The control-mastery theory of psychotherapy. New York: Routledge.

Shapiro, D. (1965). Neurotic styles. New York: Basic Books.

Shapiro, D. (1981). Autonomy and rigid character. New York: Basic Books.

Shedler, J., & Westen, D. (2004). Refining personality disorder diagnosis: Integrating science and practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1350-1365.

Spiegel, A. (2005). The dictionary of disorder: How one man revolutionized psychiatry. The New Yorker, 56-63.

Stern, D. B. (1997). Unformulated experience: From dissociation to imagination in psychoanalysis. Hillside, NJ: Analytic Press.

Stone, M. H. (1993). Abnormalities of personality: Within and beyond the realm of treatment. New York: Norton.

Terr, L. (1995). Unchained memories: True stories of traumatic memories, lost and found. New York: Basic Books.

Thompson, L., Gallagher, D., & Czirr, R. (1988). Personality disorder and outcome in the treatment of late-life depression. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 133-146.

Ulman, R. B., & Brothers, J. (1988). The shattered self: A psychoanalytic study of trauma. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Van der Kolk, B. A., McFarlane, A. C., & Weisaeth, L. (Eds.) (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.

Varvin, S. (2003). Mental survival strategies after extreme traumatisation. Copenhagen: Multivers.

Wallerstein, R. S. (1967). Reconstruction and mastery in the transference psychosis. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15, 551-583.

Wampold, B. E. (2001). The great psychotherapy debate - Models, methods and findings. Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.

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