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Supervision In Psychotherapy and Counseling

Resources & Updates

This web page is part of our Online Courses on Supervision in Psychotherapy and Counseling for CE Credit Hours (CEUs) for Psychologists, MFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.

 

 

From the California Psychology Internship Council (CAPIC)
CAPIC Home

Internship Supervisee Weekly Log of Activities

From the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC)
APPIC Home

 
Updates

Oct. 1, 2017: The Board of Psychology (BOP) has issued a Verification of Experience Form and Supervision Agreement Regulation Advisory.
Purpose: California Code of Regulations, Title 16, sections 1387 and 1387.1 relating to supervision agreement, the verification of experience, and the responsibilities of the primary supervisor were amended effective October 1, 2017. See Verification of Experience Scenario Guide and Checklist, which includes a checklist to assist both the supervisor and supervisee to comply with the regulation changes relating to the Supervision Agreement and Verification of Experience.

Feb. 8, 2017: BOP 15 Day Notice of Modified Text
The Board of Psychology has issued a 15 Day Notice of Modified Text to its Verification of Experience and Supervision Agreement regulatory package.

Jan. 2017: BOP Changes
Summary of Changes Related to Psychological Assistants in CA
and also at
Legislative Advisories - Psychological Assistants

Jan 1, 2016: New CA law
Verification of Experience

Dec 1, 2015: New Option for Supervised Experience Categories
The Board has published a summary of new legislation, pertaining to LMFT and LPCC license candidates, enacted by California Senate Bill 620. Summary: "New Option for Supervised Experience Categories"
This summary is also contained within the Board's program requirements, as follows:
LMFT
LPCC

2014: Guidelines
Guidelines for Clinical Supervision in Health Service Psychology (APA, 2014)

2014: BBS new video tutorial
How to Apply for an Associate Clinical Social Worker (ASW) Registration in California

2013: Changes to Requirements for Associate Social Workers Supervisors
According to the BBS, "Effective April 1, 2013, a person supervising an associate clinical social worker (ASW) must have been licensed in California or another state for at least two years prior to beginning any supervision." The Board has updated its website to provide further clarification of this new regulation on the ASW Supervision page.

2012: Maximum Number of Supervised Registrants
According to the ListServe feed from the Board of Behavioral Science in California, as of January 1, 2012, an eligible supervisor of a Marriage and Family Therapy intern (MFT intern), an associate clinical social worker (ASW), or a professional clinical counselor intern (PCC Intern) in a private practice setting may supervise or employ, at any one time, "no more than a total of three individuals registered as an MFT intern, ASW, or PCC Intern. A marriage and family therapy corporation, a licensed clinical social worker's corporation, or a professional clinical counselor corporation may employ, at any one time, no more than a total of three individuals registered as an MFT intern, ASW, or PCC Intern for each employee or shareholder who has satisfied the requirements stipulated in law. Any of the previously mentioned corporations may not employ, at any one time, more than a total of 15 individuals registered as an MFT intern, ASW, or PCC Intern.

In no event shall any supervisor supervise, at any one time, more than a total of three individuals registered as either an MFT intern, ASW, or PCC Intern (SB 943, Chapter 350, Statutes of 2011)."

2012: According to the California Board of Behavioral Sciences, the following additions and revisions have been made with regard to the practice of Marriage and Family Therapist interns and trainees:
AB 956 (Chapter 166, Statutes of 2011) makes several changes in law regarding disclosures to patients, as well as advertisements for marriage and family therapy services. These changes will become effective on January 1, 2012.

The changes to the law are as follows:

MFT Interns

1. Disclosure: Requires an unlicensed marriage and family therapist intern to provide each client or patient, prior to performing any professional services, with the following information (BPC §4980.44(c)): a. That he or she is an unlicensed marriage and family therapist registered intern (current law); b. His or her registration number (new provision); c. The name of his or her employer (new provision); and d. Indicate whether he or she is under the supervision of a licensed marriage and family therapist, licensed clinical social worker, licensed psychologist, or a licensed physician and surgeon certified in psychiatry by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (current law, but now the MFT intern must indicate the type of supervising licensee).

2. Advertising: Requires any advertisement by or on behalf of a marriage and family therapist intern must include, at a minimum, all of the following (BPC §4980.44(d)): a. That he or she is a marriage and family therapist registered intern; b. The intern's registration number; c. The name of his or her employer; and d. That he or she is supervised by a licensed person.

The use of the abbreviation "MFTI" in an advertisement is prohibited unless the title "marriage and family therapist registered intern" appears in the advertisement. (BPC §4980.44(d)(2)).

MFT Trainees

1. Disclosure: Requires an MFT trainee to inform each client or patient, prior to performing any professional services, of the following (BPC §4980.48(a)): a. That he or she is an unlicensed marriage and family therapist trainee (current law); b. The name of his or her employer (new provision); c. Indicate whether he or she is under the supervision of a licensed marriage and family therapist, licensed clinical social worker, licensed psychologist, or a licensed physician certified in psychiatry by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (current law, but now the MFT trainee must indicate the type of supervising licensee).

2. Advertising: Requires any advertisement of services performed by a trainee must include, at a minimum, all of the following (BPC §4980.48(b) and (c)): a. Trainee's name, and that he or she is a marriage and family therapist trainee; b. The name of his or her employer; and c. That he or she is supervised by a licensed person, and the supervisor's license designation or abbreviation, and license number.

2010: Regulations for Psychological Assistants in Private Practice and a New Supervision Agreement Form
CPA has reminded Psychologists and Psychological Assistants that new Supervision Agreements are in place for use between Supervisors and Trainees. They note the following in Progress Notes:

In 2008, PROGRESS NOTES published proposed Board of Psychology regulations relevant to psychological assistants in private practice settings. In that article, PROGRESS NOTES advised psychologists who were involved in supervision to become familiar with those regulations. Those regulations went into effect on August 23, 2009 and PN is again providing this important information for supervisors and psychologists-in training. In part, the new regulations provide that (1) the supervision agreement must include an educational plan and, (2) the plan must be approved by the BOP prior to the start of SPE. In response to questions, the Board of Psychology has clarified that a psychological assistant registration that was approved prior to August 23, 2009 and has completed an old supervision agreement form will not need to complete a new supervision agreement form for prior approval on or after August 23, 2009. The Board will accept the old form as long as the registration was approved prior to August 23, 2009.

New regulations

2010: MFT EXPERIENCE CATEGORIES / SUMMARY OF HOURS PERMITTED/REQUIRED For Hours Gained on or After January 1, 2010
Table presenting all changes to the above

2010: Changes Made for MFT Supervision Requirements/Experience for Hours Gained on or After January 1, 2010
Table identifying all changes made to the above

2009: Payment for Supervision
According to a recent CAMFT, in a recent post, the decision made about whether or not interns can be required to pay for supervision has been overturned and is again under review. CAMFT posted the following statement:

In previous years, law and regulation specifically prohibited interns working in private practice from paying for supervision. However, just a few years ago, a change in law and regulation removed this prohibition, giving the de facto impression that paying for supervision in private practice was lawful. It has been our experience, as well as the impression of the BBS that, likewise, paying for supervision in any other lawful setting was not prohibited.

Recently, there have been several cases before the California Labor Board where it was specifically ruled that an employer is prohibited from having employees cover the costs of supervision (citing Labor Code §§216 and 221). Because of the ruling from the Labor Board, the BBS initiated the following statement during its October 10, 2009 Board Meeting:

"The Board's laws generally contemplate that interns should be paid for their work as employees. To the extent that interns are paid as employees, their employer may not require such interns to pay for the required supervision."

Based on this new interpretation, the recent Labor Board case holdings, and the current confusion surrounding this issue, CAMFT has asked that the BBS place this matter, for further discussion and review, on its January 2010 Meeting Agenda.

In the interim, we would suggest that employers not expect employees to pay for supervision - this recommendation is applicable to all work settings including private practice settings. The only exception being offsite supervision at a non-private practice entity (i.e. agency, non-profit, hospital, governmental).

Some may ask what employers should do in the meantime - the answer would be either charge clients with fees sufficient to cover the cost of providing supervision, renegotiate percentage arrangements with interns, or reduce wages paid to supervisees to cover the costs of supervision. Of course, wages paid are required to be equal to or greater than minimum wage for the area where the services are provided.

NOTE: Part of the problem may be in the terminology. Supervision, as we know it, for interns, trainees, and associates, is much more than oversight for the work these aspiring professionals perform. Supervision is different than what the Labor Board perceives it to be, but they have no choice but to treat it as what it is commonly known to mean. In the context that we speak of supervision, it is really a part of the clinical work experience. It is possible it could be re-classified in the licensing laws to reflect more of the learning experience that it is in order for it to be treated more like a part of the mandatory training. We will report further on what may be the possible outcome from this situation following the next meeting of the BBS.

For more information on this recent development, please call CAMFT at 888-892-2638.

2009:
Updates from the Board of Behavioral Sciences on subjects such as examination process, guidelines for hours of experience, telemedicine and payment for supervision. Also see "Critical Reminders for Interns and Trainees and Supervisors, Too!" in CAMFT's The Therapist, November/December, 2008 edition.

2008: Immunity for Supervisors who Provide Honest Account of Supervisee's Performance
The following law was passed on January 1, 2008.

SB 822 (AANESTAD) SUPERVISOR IMMUNITY

On January 1, SB 822, authored by Senator Sam Aanestad and sponsored by the California Psychological Association officially became operative law. SB 822 will grant immunity to supervisors of graduate students who communicate relevant information to the graduate program about a student's performance. Capitol Notes readers will recall this is the same immunity granted to individuals who communicate similarly with professional associations, the California Board of Psychology, and individuals in medical, dental, podiatric, and veterinary schools. This law will ensure that supervisors working in public service programs, as well as independent practitioners who supervise students in training, can provide honest, straightforward evaluative information about the student being supervised.

View text of this bill

Prior Relationships between Supervisor & Supervisee (per BBS)

In October, 2008, the following the above text was replaced with the following:

"The supervisor may not be related by blood, marriage, intimate bond to the supervisee as any and all of these relationships would impair the effectiveness of the supervision, as well as the perception of authority of the supervisor."

While prior relationships between potential supervisor and supervisee were prohibited in the past, the BBS has amended their text to read that a, "Respondent [to a Disciplinary Action) may, after receiving the Board's written permission, secure a supervisor with whom a prior business or professional relationship exists or a supervisor not licensed in the respondent's field of practice if respondent is unsuccessful in securing a supervisor with no prior business or professional relationship in the respondent's field of practice due to the quantity or availability of qualified health care professionals in the area. The Board may require that respondent provide written documentation of his or her good faith attempts to locate a mental health professional with no prior business or professional relationship with respondent." (see link)

(Note: It is unclear whether this option applies to trainees and interns as well as licensed Respondents to Actions by the BBS.)

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Forms

General:

A short brochure on the supervision of MFTs Interns and Trainees
A short brochure on the supervision of ACSWs
Responsibility Statement for Supervisors of an Associate Clinical Social Worker

The following forms are copyrighted but may be of interest and are available from their authors:

Sample Supervision Contract Outline
Therapist Evaluation Checklist
Supervisor Evaluation Form
Psychology Trainee Evaluation of Supervision Competencies
Post-doctoral Supervisor Evaluation Form - The Kaiser Permanente Medical Group, Inc.
Resident Initial Self-Assessment Of Skills & Competencies - Kaiser Permanente North Bay Consortium
Competencies Quarterly Progress Report  - Kaiser Permanente North Bay Consortium

 
Guidelines

A Guide to Supervision for Marriage and Family Therapist Interns and Trainees, 2016, BBS-CA

Guidelines for Clinical Supervision in Health Service Psychology Approved by APA Council of Representatives, 2014

Best Practice Standards in Social Work Supervision, NASW-2013

Best Practices in Counseling Supervision Adopted by the ACES Executive Council, 2011

APA Record Keeping Guidelines (February, 2007)

 
Codes Of Ethics

Summary of professional organizations' codes of ethics on:
Supervision
Dual Relationships
Confidentiality
Impairment

 
Organizational Resources On Supervision

APPIC
The home page for the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers

CAPIC: California Psychology Internship Council
Training Resources

 
Technology-Based Supervision

Technology Based supervision Guidelines - National Frontier & Rural ATTIC

Using Technology to Enhance Clinical Supervision

 

 
Competencies Resources

Supervision Best Practices

Accomplishments of the Work Group Focused on Human Diversity (2004) Report of the California Board of Psychology

Competencies Documents including Benchmarks, Practicum Competencies and NCSPP

Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards from the Council on Social Work Education

Marriage and Family Therapy Competencies

Psychiatric/ Mental Health Nursing Competencies

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General Resources

CAMFT

Brochure: Professional Therapy Never Includes Sex

The Ethics of Supervision and Consultation: Practical Guidance for Mental Health Professionals

 
CA Regulations Of Supervision For Psychologists, MFT, LCSWs

From the California Board of Psychology

Implementation of Title Change (“Intern” to “Associate”) Marriage and Family Therapist Interns and Professional Clinical Counselor Interns (Effective January 1, 2018)

Verification of Experience Form and Supervision Agreement Regulation Advisory (Effective 10/1/17)

California Laws and Regulations: 2016

BOP: Supervision at a Glance

BOP: Verification of Experience Form (1)

Supervision Agreement for Supervised Professional Experience in Non-Mental Health Services

Psychological Assistant Registration Renewal Application

From the California Board of Behavioral Sciences

Marriage & Family Therapy:
Marriage and Family Therapist Trainee and Intern Supervision Information

MFT Intern Registration Packet

MFT Experience Verification Form

MFT Weekly Summary of Hours of Experience

Responsibility Statement for Supervisors of a Marriage And Family Therapist Trainee or Intern

Clinical Social Work:
How to Apply for an Associate Clinical Social Worker (ASW) Registration in California BBS video tutorial

ASW Registration Packet

Clinical Social Worker Experience Verification

ASW Supervisory Plan

Responsibility Statement for Supervisors of an Associate Clinical Social Worker

ASW Weekly Log

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States' Regulations Of Supervision Of Psychotherapy, Counseling, Social Work

Alabama

750-X-2A-.07 Supervision Requirements

California

BBS Supervision Guides
BOP Supervision regulations

Massachusetts

Marriage and Family Therapist

Oregon

Information on Becoming a Supervisor

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Supervision References

Using Technology-Based Therapeutic Tools in Behavioral Health Services

Abela, A & Scerri C. S. (2010). Managing multiple relationships in supervision: Dealing with the complexity. Chapter 14. In C. Burck, G. Daniel (Eds) Mirrors and Reflections: Processes of Systemic Supervision.

Bahadur, M. & Falender, C. A. (2011) Psychology and technology: What happens when they collide? The Los Angeles Psychologist. Retrieved from http://www.lapsych.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=52

Barnett, J. E. (2008). Mentoring, boundaries, and multiple relationships: Opportunities and challenges. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16, 3-16.

Bernard, J. M. (1979). Supervisor training: A discrimination model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 19, 60-68.

Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2014). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Boston:Pearson.

Burian, B. K., & Slimp, A. O. (2000). Social dual-relationships during internship: A decision-making model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 332-338.

Collins, C., Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2011). Commentary on Rebecca Schwartz-Mette’s 2009 article, “Challenges in Addressing Graduate Student Impairment in Academic Professional Psychology Programs." Ethics & Behavior, 21(11), 1-3.

Cornell, W. F. (1994) Dual Relationships in Transactional Analysis: Training, Supervision, and Therapy. Transactional Analysis Journal, 24, 21-20

Cramer, R. J., Johnson, S. M., Rausch, E. M., McLaughlin, J., & Conroy, M. A. (2013). Suicide risk assessment training for psychology doctoral programs: Core competencies and a framework for training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 7, 1-11. doi:10.1037/a0031836

Falender, C.A. (2005). Reframing child disabilities and the family: A strength and resilience approach. A review of Understanding Families: Approaches to Diversity, Disability, and Risk by M.J. Hanson & E.W. Lynch. PsycCritiques, 50(4).

Falender, C.A. (2006) Putting results into practice: Advocacy in child mental health. Child and Family Policy and Practice Review, 2(2), 26-29.

Falender, C. A. (2010a). "You Said What?" - Becoming a Better Supervisor. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course062.php

Falender, C. A. (2010b). Relationship and accountability: Tensions in feminist supervision. Women & Therapy, 33, 22-41. doi:10.1080/02703140903404697

Falender, C. A. (2014a). Clinical supervision in a competency-based era. African Journal of Psychology, 44, 6-17. doi: 10.1177/0081246316260

Falender, C. A. (2014b). Supervision outcomes: Beginning the journey beyond the Emperor's new clothes. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 8, 143-148. doi: 10.1037/tep0000066

Falender, C. A., (2017). Multiple Relationships and Clinical Supervision. In Zur, O. (Ed.) Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.

Falender, C.A. and Brodsky, A. (1998). Education and training division reports on conference. California Psychologist, May/June, 1998.

Falender, C. A., Burnes, T., & Ellis, M. (2013). Introduction to major contribution: Multicultural clinical supervision and benchmarks: Empirical support informing practice and supervisor training. The Counseling Psychologist, 41, 8-27. doi:10.1177/0011000012438417

Falender, C. A., Collins, C. J., & Shafranske, E. P. (2004). Use of the term “Impairment” in psychology supervision. APPIC Newsletter, 29(2), 7. Retrieved from http://www.appic.org/news/Newsletter/November2004/04_Nov_Issue.pdf

Falender, C. A., Collins, C., & Shafranske, E. P. (2009). Impairment and performance issues in clinical supervision: After the 2008 ADA Amendments Act. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3, 240-249.

Falender, C. A., Cornish, J. A. E., Goodyear, R., Hatcher, R., Kaslow, N. J., Leventhal, G., . . . Sigmon, S. T. (2004). Defining competencies in psychology supervision: A consensus statement. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60(7), 771-785. doi:10.1002/jclp.20013

Falender, C. A., Ellis, M. V., & Burnes, T. (2013). Response to reactions to major contribution: Multicultural clinical supervision and Benchmarks. The Counseling Psychologist, 41, 140-151. doi:10.1177/0011000012464061

Falender, C. A., Grus, C., McCutcheon, S., Goodyear, R. K., Ellis, M. V., Doll, B.,...Kaslow, N. J. (2016). Guidelines for clinical supervision in health service psychology: Evidence and implementation strategies. Psychotherapy Bulletin, 51(3), 6-16.

Falender, C. A., Grus, C., McCutcheon, S., Doll, B., Ellis, M. V., Goodyear, R.,…Kaslow, N. (in review). Clinical supervision: A new era heralded by Guidelines for Clinical Supervision in Health Service Psychology.

Falender, C.A., & Predolin, J.C. (2006). Tangled up in blues: Adolescent Suicide. A review of Adolescent suicide: Assessment and Intervention (2nd ed.). by A.L. Berman, D.A. Jobes, & M.M. Silverman PsycCRITIQUES, 51(17).

Falender, C.A., & Rosenberg, J.I. (2005). The scope and practice of continuing education: issues and concerns. The California Psychologist,38(4), 6-8.

Falender, C.A. & Rosenberg, J.I.(Eds.) (2005) Education, supervision, and training: Another look at regulatory and diversity issues. The California Psychologist, 38(4). (Issue Editors).

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2004). Clinical supervision: A competency-based approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Falender, C.A., & Shafranske, E.P. (2005) Supervision. In Celia B. Fisher and Richard M. Lerner (Eds.). The Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Falender, C.A., & Shafranske, E.P. (2005). Supervisee effectiveness. In M.B. Madson, L.K. Chapman, N.L. Wood-Barcalow, & C.Williams-Nickelson (Eds.). Succeeding in practicum: An APAGS Resource Guide. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association of Graduate Students.

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2007). Competence in competency-based supervision practice: Construct and application. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38 (3), 232-240. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.38.3.232

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2008). Casebook for clinical supervision: A competency-based approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2010). Psychotherapy-based supervision models in an emerging competency-based era: A commentary. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47, 45-50. doi:10.1037/a0018873

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2012a). Getting the most out of clinical training and supervision: A guide for practicum students and interns. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2012b). The importance of competency-based clinical supervision and training in the twenty-first century: Why bother? Journal of Contemporary Psychology, 42 (3), 129-137. doi:10.1007/s10879-011-9198-9

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2013). Responsibilities and liabilities in supervision. In G. P. Koocher, J. C. Norcross, & B. A. Greene (Eds.), Psychologists' Desk Reference (3rd. Ed.). pp. 730-734. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2014). Clinical supervision: State of the Art. Journal of Clinical Psychology In Session, 70(11), 130-141. doi: xs10.1002/jclp.22124

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2014). Clinical supervision in the era of competence. In W. B. Johnson & N. Kaslow (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Education and Training in Professional Psychology. Oxford.

Falender, C. A., Shafranske, E. P., & Falicov, C. (Eds.). (2014). Multiculturalism and Diversity in Clinical Supervision: A Competency-based Approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Falender, C. A., Shafranske, E. P., & Olek, A. (2014). Competent clinical supervision: Emerging effective practices. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 27(4), 393-408. doi: 10.1080/09515070.2014.934785

Falvey, J. E. (2001) Managing Clinical Supervision: Ethical Practice and Legal Risk Management. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks-Cole. Referred to in Haarman (2011).

Falvey, J. E. (2002). Managing Clinical Supervision: Ethical Practice and Legal Risk Management. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning. Referred to in Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2009a).

Fialkov, C., & Haddad, D. (2012). Appreciative clinical training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 6, 204-210. doi:10.1037/a0030832

Forester-miller, H. & Jack A. Duncan, J. A. (1990). The ethics of dual relationships in the training of group counselors. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 15/2, 88-93.

Forrest, L., & Elman, N. S. (2014). Trainees with problems of professional competence. In W. B. Johnson & N. Kaslow (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Education and Training in Professional Psychology (pp. 314-336). New York, NY: Oxford Press.

Forrest, L., Elman, N. S., Huprich, S. K., Veilleux, J. C., Jacobs, S. C., & Kaslow, N. J. (2013). Training directors’ perceptions of faculty behaviors when dealing with trainee competence problems: A mixed method pilot study. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 7, 23-32. doi:10.1037/a0032068

Gottlieb, M. C., Robinson, K., & Younggren, J. N. (2007). Multiple relations in supervision: Guidance for administrators, supervisors, and students. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 241-247.

Hatcher, R. L., Fouad, N. A., Grus, C. L., Campbell, L. F., McCutcheon, S. R., & Leahy, K. L. (2013). Competency benchmarks: Practical steps towards a culture of competency. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 7, 84-91. doi:10.1037/a0029401

Haynes, R., Corey, G., & Moulton, P. (2003). Clinical supervision in the helping professions: A practical guide. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Heru, A.; Strong, D.; Price, M & Recupero, P. (2004) Boundaries in psychotherapy supervision. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 58/1: 76-89.

Holloway, E. (1995). Clinical supervision: A systems approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Holloway, E., & Wolleat, P. L. (1994). Supervision: The pragmatics of empowerment. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation,5(1), 23-43.

Huhra, R. L., Yamokoski-Maynhart, C. A., & Prieto, L. R. (2008). Reviewing videotapes in supervision: A developmental approach. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(4), 412-418.

Johnson, W., Barnett, J. E., Elman, N. S., Forrest, L., & Kaslow, N. J. (2013). The competence constellation model: A communitarian approach to support professional competence. Professional Psychology: Research And Practice, 44(5), 343-354. doi:10.1037/a0033131

Kaslow, N. J., Falender, C. A., & Grus, C. (2012). Valuing and practicing competency-based supervision: A transformational leadership perspective. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 6, 47-54. doi:10.1037/a0026704

Kurpius. D., Gibson. G., Lewis, J. & Corbet, M. (1991). Ethical issues in supervising counseling practitioners. Counselor Education and Supervision, 31,48-57.

Lambers, E. (2000). Supervision in person-centered therapy: Facilitating congruence. In E. Mearns & B. Thorne (Eds.), Person-centered therapy today: New frontiers in theory and practice (pp.196-211). London:Sage.

Liese, B. S., & Beck, J. S. (1997). Cognitive therapy supervision. In C. E. Watkins, Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of psychotherapy supervision (pp.114-133). NewYork:John Wiley & Sons.

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Nelson, M.L., & Friedlander, M.L. (2001). A close look at conflictual supervisory relationships: The trainee's perspective. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 384-395.

Novotney, A. (2017). How should a junior psychologist handle supervisor’s compromised competence. Monitor of Psychology, October, 35-37.

Peake, T. H., Nussbaum, B. D., & Tindell, S. D. (2002). Clinical and counseling supervision references: Trends and needs. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 39(1), 114-125.

Penman, D., Shafranske, E., & Falender, C.(2003). Conference on Clinical Supervision: Assessing Competence to Practice. California Psychologist.

Pettifor, J., Sinclair, C., & Falender, C. A. (2014). Ethical supervision: Harmonizing rules and ideals in a globalizing world. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 8(2), 1-10. doi: 10.1037/tep0000046

Reiser, R. P., & Milne, D. (2012). Supervising cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: Pressing needs, impressing possibilities. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 42(3), 161-171.

Ronnestad, M. H., & Skovolt, T. M. (1993). Supervision of beginning and advanced graduate students of counseling and psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71, 396-405.

Ronnestad, M. H. & Skovholt, T. M. (2003). The journey of the counselor and therapist: Research findings and perspectives on professional development. Journal of Career Development, 30, 5-44.

Sehgal, R., Saules, K., Young, A., Grey, M. J., Gillem, A. R., Nabors, N. A....Jefferson, S. (2011). Practicing what we know: Multicultural counseling competence among clinical psychology trainees and experienced multicultural psychologists. Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Psychology, 17, 1-10. doi:10.1037/a0021667

Shen-Miller, D. S., Forest, L. & Burt, M. (2012). Contextual influences on faculty diversity conceptualizations when working with trainee competence problems. The Counseling Psychologist, 40, 1181-1219. doi:10.1177/0011000011431832

Skovolt, T. M., & Ronnestad, M. H. (1992). The evolving professional self: Stages and themes in therapist and counselor development. Chichester, England: Wiley.

Slimp, P. A. O., & Burian, B. K. (1994). Multiple role relationships during internship: Consequences and recommendations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 39-45.

Smith, R. D., Riva, M. T., & Cornish, J. A. E. (2012). The ethical practice of group supervision: A national survey. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 6, 238-248. doi:10.1037/a0030806

Stoltenberg, C. D. (1981). Approaching supervision from a developmental perspective: The counselor complexity model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 59-65.

Stoltenberg, C. D., & Delworth, U. (1987). Supervising counselors and therapists. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Stoltenberg, C. D., McNeill, B., & Delworth, U. (1998). IDM supervision: An integrated developmental model for supervising counselors and therapists. SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sullivan, L. E. & Ogloff, J. R. P. (1998). Appropriate supervisor - graduate student relationships. Ethics & Behavior, 8, 229-248.

Tromski-Klingshirn, D. M., & Davis, T. E. (2007). Supervisees' perceptions of their clinical supervision: A study of the dual role of clinical and administrative supervisor. Counselor Education & Supervision, 46, 294-304.

Varela, J. G., & Conroy, M. A. (2012). Professional competencies in forensic psychology. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 43, 410-421. doi:10.1037/a0026776

Ward, C. C., & House, R. M. (1998). Counseling supervision: A reflective model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 38, 23-33.

Whiston, S. C., & Emerson, S. (1989). Ethical implications for supervisors in counseling of trainees. Counselor Education and Supervision, 28, 319-325.

Wisnia, C.S. and Falender, C. (1999). Training in Cultural Competency. Journal of Training. APPIC Newsletter, 12.

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Supervision Specific to Substance Abuse Counselors

Online resources for support, education, and ethical considerations

Association of Addictions Professionals - NAADAC
http://naadac.org

International Certification & Reciprocity Consortium
http://www.internationalcredentialing.org

American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy
http://www.aamft.org

The American Counseling Association
http://www.counseling.org

The Association for Counselor Education and Supervision
http://www.acesonline.net

The National Board for Certified Counselors
http://www.nbcc.org

For information associated with the National Certification for Addiction Counselors https://www.naadac.org/types-eligibility

TIP 50: Addressing Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Substance Abuse Treatment
https://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA13-4793/SMA13-4793.pdf In order to gain competency in the area of suicide assessment for those currently receiving Substance Abuse Treatment.

TIP 51: Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women
http://162.99.3.213/products/manuals/tips/pdf/TIP51.pdf (SMA) 09-4426

Self Care: A Guide for Addictions Professionals
http://www.nattc.org/userfiles/file/MidAtlantic/SelfCareGuide.pdf
For the maintenance of the health of the addictions professionals on the front line.

Chemical Dependency Counselor Candidate Handbook: 2010
https://www.ccapp.us/site_media/media/attachments/flatpages_flatpage/44/cert_handbook_rev_5-10-12.pdf
 

References Specific to Substance Abuse Counselors

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychological Association. (2007). Record keeping guidelines. American Psychologist, 62, 993–1004.

Anderson, Sandra, C. (2009). Substance Use Disorders in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Clients: Assessment and Treatment. New York: Columbia University Press.

Belenko, S., Johnson, I. D., Taxman, F. S., & Rieckmann, T. (May 23, 2016). Probation Staff Attitudes Toward Substance Abuse Treatment and Evidence-Based Practices. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 

Bernard, J. M. & Goodyear, R. K. (2013). Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision (5 Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Borders, L. D., & Brown, L. L. (2008). The New Handbook of Counseling Supervision (2 Ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Burke, P. A., Carruth, B., & Prichard, D. (2006). Counselor self-care in work with traumatized, addicted people. In Carruth, B. (Ed.). Psychological Trauma and Addiction Treatment (pp. 283–301). New York: Haworth Press.

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2015). Behavioral health trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 15-4927, NSDUH Series H-50). Retrieved fromhttp://www.samhsa.gov/data/

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2005). Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction in Opioid Treatment Programs. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 43. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4214. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006). Addiction Counseling Competencies: The Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Professional Practice. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 21 (Rep. No. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 07-4243). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006a). Detoxification and Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 45. (HHS Publication No. SMA 06-4131). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006b). Substance Abuse: Administrative Issues in Intensive Outpatient Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 46. (HHS Publication No. SMA 06-4151). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006c). Substance Abuse: Clinical Issues in Intensive Outpatient Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 47. (HHS Publication No. 06-4182). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2007). Competencies for Substance Abuse Treatment Clinical Supervisors. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 21-A (Rep. No. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 07-4243). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2008). Managing Depressive Symptoms in Substance Abuse Clients During Early Recovery. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 48. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2009). Addressing Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 50. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2009). Incorporating Alcohol Pharmacotherapies Into Medical Practice. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 49. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2009). Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 51. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development a). Addressing Viral Hepatitis in People With Substance Use Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development b). Improving Cultural Competence in Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development c). Management of Chronic Pain in People With or in Recovery From Substance Use Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development d). Relapse Prevention and Recovery Promotion. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development e). Substance Abuse Treatment for Native Americans and Alaska Natives. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development f). Substance Abuse Treatment: Men's Issues. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development g). Substance Abuse Treatment for People Who Are Homeless. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development h). Substance Abuse and Trauma. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Constantine, M. G. (2003). Multicultural competence in supervision: Issues, processes, and outcomes. In Pope-Davis, D. B., Coleman, H. L. K., Liu, W. M., & Toporek, R. L. (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Competencies: In Counseling & Psychology (pp. 383–391). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cosden, M., Sanford, A., Koch, L. M., & Lepore, C. E. (October 01, 2016). Vicarious trauma and vicarious posttraumatic growth among substance abuse treatment providers. Substance Abuse, 37, 4, 619-624.

Evans, E., Jaffe, A., Urada, D., & Anglin, M. D. (January 01, 2012). Differential outcomes of court-supervised substance abuse treatment among California parolees and probationers. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56, 4, 539-56.

Guerrero, E. G., He, A., Kim, A., & Aarons, G. A. (November 01, 2014). Organizational Implementation of Evidence-Based Substance Abuse Treatment in Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 41, 6, 737-749.

Knudsen, H. K., Roman, P. M., & Abraham, A. J. (May 01, 2013). Quality of clinical supervision and counselor emotional exhaustion: The potential mediating roles of organizational and occupational commitment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44, 5, 528-533.

Lambie, G. (2006). Burnout prevention: A humanistic perspective and structured group supervision activity. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 45, 32–44.

Laschober, T. C., de, T. E. L. T., & Sauer, J. B. (January 01, 2012). Clinical supervisor and counselor perceptions of clinical supervision in addiction treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 31, 4, 382-8.

Lindbloom, G., Ten Eyck, T. G., & Gallon, S. L. (2004). Clinical Supervision I: Building Chemical Dependency Counselor Skills: Instructor Guide. Salem, Oregon: Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center.

Loganbill, C., Hardy, E., & Delworth, U. (1982). Supervision: A conceptual model. Counseling Psychologist, 10, 3–42.

Martino, S., Paris, M., Añez, L., Nich, C., Canning-Ball, M., Hunkele, K., Olmstead, T. A., ... Carroll, K. M. (September 01, 2016). The Effectiveness and Cost of Clinical Supervision for Motivational Interviewing: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 68, 2, 11-23.

Mattel, P. (2007). Designing and implementing clinical supervision. Unpublished manuscript.

NAADAC, The Association for Addiction Professionals (2003). NAADAC, The Association for Addiction Professionals Practitioner Services Network Year 2 Final Report: A Survey of Early Career Substance Abuse Counselors. Washington, DC: NAADAC, The Association for Addiction Professionals.

Olmstead, T. A., Abraham, A. J., Martino, S., & Roman, P. M. (January 01, 2012). Counselor training in several evidence-based psychosocial addiction treatments in private US substance abuse treatment centers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 120, 1-3.

Oser, C. B. P. D., Biebel, E. P. P. D., Pullen, E. M. A., & Harp, K. L. H. M. A. (January 01, 2013). Causes, Consequences, and Prevention of Burnout Among Substance Abuse Treatment Counselors: A Rural Versus Urban Comparison. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45, 1, 17-27.

Peters, R. H., Young, M. S., Rojas, E. C., & Gorey, C. M. (January 01, 2017). Evidence-based treatment and supervision practices for co-occurring mental and substance use disorders in the criminal justice system. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 43, 4, 475-488.

Pope, K. S., Sonne, J. L., & Greene, B. (2006). What Therapists Don't Talk About and Why: Understanding Taboos That Hurt Us and Our Clients. (2d ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Porter, J. & Gallon, S. L. (2006). Clinical Supervision II: Addressing Supervisory Problems in Addictions Treatment. Salem, OR: Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center.

Powell, D. J., & Brodsky, A. (2004). Clinical Supervision in Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counseling: Principles, Models, Methods. (Rev. Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Ramsey, A. T., Baumann, A., Patterson, S. W. D., Yan, Y., Cooper, B., & Proctor, E. (January 01, 2017). The need for data-informed clinical supervision in substance use disorder treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 36, 2.

Remley, T. P., & Herlihy, B. (2007). Ethical, Legal, and Professional Issues in Counseling. (Updated 2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Roche, A. M., Todd, C. L., & O'Connor, J. (2007). Clinical supervision in the alcohol and other drugs field: An imperative or an option? Drug and Alcohol Review, 26, 241–249.

Rousmaniere, T., Abbass, A., & Frederickson, J. (November 01, 2014). New Developments in Technology-Assisted Supervision and Training: A Practical Overview. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70, 11, 1082-1093.

Sacks, S., Chaple, M., Sirikantraporn, J., Sacks, J. A. Y., Knickman, J., & Martinez, J. (May 01, 2013). Improving the capability to provide integrated mental health and substance abuse services in a state system of outpatient care. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44, 5, 488-493.

Schmidt, E. A., Ybañez-Llorente, K., & Lamb, B. C. (January 01, 2013). Enhancing Supervision in the Addictions Field: Introducing the Supervisor Evaluation of the Professional and Ethical Competence of Substance Abuse Counselors. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 31, 1, 78-94.

Schmidt, E. A. (October 01, 2012). Clinical supervision in the substance abuse profession: A review of the literature. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 30, 4, 487-504.

Smith, J. L., Carpenter, K. M., Amrhein, P. C., Brooks, A. C., Levin, D., Schreiber, E. A., Travaglini, L. A., ... Nunes, E. V. (January 01, 2012). Training substance abuse clinicians in motivational interviewing using live supervision via teleconferencing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 3, 450-64.

Tromski-Klingshirn, D. (2006). Should the clinical supervisor be the administrative supervisor? The ethics versus the reality, The Clinical Supervisor, 25, 53–67.

Tsounis, A., Sarafis, P., & Niakas, D. (February 15, 2017). Social capital and job satisfaction among substance abuse treatment employees. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 12, 1, 1-11.

Tuten, L. M., Jones, H. E., & Schaeffer, C. M. (2011). Reinforcement-Based Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: A Comprehensive Behavioral Approach. Washington: American Psychological Association.

West, P. L., & Hamm, T. (October 01, 2012). A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 33, 2, 66-81.

Williams, L. (1994). A tool for training supervisors: Using the supervision feedback form (SFF). Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 20, 311–315.

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