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Ethical Decision-Making in Psychotherapy

Online Resources & References

This resource page is part of an Online Course
Ethical Decision-Making in Psychotherapy

CE Credit Hours for Psychologists. CE Credit Hours (CEUs) for LMFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.
CE Approvals by BBS-CA, ASWB, NBCC, NAADAC, CA-BRN & more.
Zur Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Zur Institute maintains responsibility for this program and its content.


Ethical Decision Making

On Ethics and Psychology

Ethical Risk Management


On Ethics and Torture


Additional References

  • Anderson, S., and M. M. Handelsman. 2010. Ethics for psychotherapists and counselors: A proactive approach. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Barnett, J. E., & Johnson, W. B. (2015). Ethics desk reference for counselors (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Beauchamp, T. L., & Childress, J. F. (2012). Principles of biomedical ethics (7th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Bersoff, D., ed. 2008. Ethical conflicts in psychology. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bradley, L. J., & Hendricks, C. B. (2008). Ethical decision making: Basic issues. The Family Journal, 16, 261–263.
  • Brennan, C. (2013). Ensuring ethical practice: Guidelines for mental health counselors in private practice. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 35, 245–261.
  • Bridges, N. A. (2001). Therapist’s self-disclosure: Expanding the comfort zone. Psychotherapy, 38, 21–30. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.38.1.21
  • Caldwell, B. E., & Stone, D. J. (2016). Using scaling to facilitate ethical decision-making in family therapy. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 44(4), 198-210.
  • Canter, M. B., Bennett, B. E., Jones, S. E., & Nagy, T. F. (1994). Ethics for psychologists: A commentary on the APA ethics code. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Carnes-Holt, K., Maddox II, R. P., Warren, J., Morgan, M., & Zakaria, N. S. (2016). Using bookmarks: An approach to support ethical decision making in play therapy. International Journal of Play Therapy, 25(4), 176-185. doi:10.1037/pla0040380
  • Coughlin, S. (2008). How many principles for public health ethics? The Open Public Health Journal, 1, 8–16.
  • Fehr, K. K., Hazen, R. A., & Nielsen, B. A. (2017). Ethical decision making for psychology trainees in the clinical pediatric setting: Case examples and practical solutions for trainees and supervisors. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 5(1), 123-136. doi:10.1037/cpp0000162
  • Fisher, C. 2013. Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists. 3d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
  • Fisher, C. D. (2004). Ethical issues in therapy: Therapist self-disclosure of sexual feelings. Ethics and Behavior, 12, 105–121. doi:10.1207/s15327019eb1402_2
  • Forester-Miller, H., & Davis, T. (1996). A practitioner’s guide to ethical decision making. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Forester-Miller, H. & Rubenstein, R.L. (1992). Group Counseling: Ethics and Professional Issues. In D. Capuzzi & D. R. Gross (Eds.) Introduction to Group Counseling (307-323). Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co.
  • Frame, M. W., & Williams, C. B. (2005) A model of ethical decision making from a multicultural perspective. Counseling and Values, 49, 165–179.
  • Haas, L.J. & Malouf, J.L. (1989). Keeping up the good work: A practitioner's guide to mental health ethics. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.
  • Kitchener, K. S. (1984). Intuition, critical evaluation and ethical principles: The foundation for ethical decisions in counseling psychology. Counseling Psychologist, 12(3), 43-55.
  • Kitchener, K. S., & Anderson, S. K. (2011). Foundations of ethical practice, research, and teaching in psychology and counseling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Knapp, S. J., Gottlieb, M. C., & Handelsman, M. M. (2015). Ethical dilemmas in psychotherapy: Positive approaches to decision making. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Knapp, S., & VandeCreek, L. (2012). Practical ethics for psychologists: A positive approach. 2d ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Koocher, G., and P. Keith-Spiegel. 4th Ed. (2016). Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: Standards and cases. 3d ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
  • Levitt, D. H., Farry, T. J., & Mazzarella, J. R. (2015). Counselor ethical reasoning: Decision-making practice versus theory. Counseling and Values, 60, 84–99.
  • Pohling, R., Bzdok, D., Eigenstetter, M., Stumpf, S., & Strobel, A. (2016). What is ethical competence? The role of empathy, personal values, and the five-factor model of personality in ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(3), 449-474. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2569-5
  • Pope, K. S., and M. Vasquez. 2011. Ethics in psychotherapy and counseling: A practical guide. 4th ed. New York: Wiley.
  • Rosenbaum, M. (1982). Ethical problems of Group Psychotherapy. In M. Rosenbaum (Ed.), Ethics and values in psychotherapy: A guidebook (237-257). New York: Free Press.
  • Sileo, F. & Kopala, M. (1993). An A-B-C-D-E worksheet for promoting beneficence when considering ethical issues. Counseling and Values, 37, 89-95.
  • Stadler, H. A. (1986). Making hard choices: Clarifying controversial ethical issues. Counseling & Human Development, 19, 1-10.
  • Van Hoose, W.H. (1980). Ethics and counseling. Counseling & Human Development, 13(1), 1-12.
  • Van Hoose, W.H. & Paradise, L.V. (1979). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Perspectives in issues and decision-making. Cranston, RI: Carroll Press.
  • Yonan, J., Bardick, A. D., & Willment, J. H. (2011). Ethical decision making, therapeutic boundaries, and communicating using online technology and cellular phones. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 45(4), 307-326.
  • Zur, O. (2007). Boundaries in Psychotherapy: Ethical and Clinical Explorations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association - APA Books.
  • Zur, O. (2008). Historical Shifts In The Debate On Therapeutic Boundaries. California Psychologist, 41 (1), 6-9.
  • Zur, O. (2009). Power in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Exploring the "inherent power differential" and related myths about therapists' omnipotence and clients' vulnerability. Independent Practitioner 29, (3), 160-164.
  • Zur, O. (2010). Self-disclosure. In I. B. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds.), Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (4th ed., pp. 1532-1534).
  • Zur, O. (2010). To Google or Not to Google ... Our Clients? When psychotherapists and other mental health care providers search their clients on the Web. Independent Practitioner, 30/3, pp. 144-148.
  • Zur, O. (2012). Subsequent Therapist Syndrome: Are We Our Worst Enemy? Independent Practitioner. 32/1, 10-12.
  • Zur, O. (Ed.) (2017). Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.
  • Zur, O. & Huggins, R. (2016). HIPAA Compliance Kit, 8th Edition. Distributed by Zur Institute, Inc. (3rd Edition of HIPAA Compliance Kit by Ofer Zur, Ph.D. was Distributed by W. W. Norton, N.Y.: Norton Professional Books.)
  • Zur, O. & Zur, A. (2011). The Facebook Dilemma: To Accept or Not to Accept? Responding to Clients' "Friend Requests" on Psychotherapists' Social Networking Sites. Independent Practitioner, 31/1, pp. 12-17.

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