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Domestic Violence, Interpersonal Violence
& Intimate Partner Violence

Resources & References

Online Courses:
Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate Spousal and Partner Violence
Intimate Partner Violence: Towards a More Comprehensive Understanding of Maladaptive Coping in Relationships


Organizations & Resources

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Summary of Online Resources Regarding Legal Issues for California Psychotherapists

    Sections of California Law most relevant to psychotherapy and counseling are in the following sections of the Business & Regulations in California.

    • LCSWs: Division 2, Chapter 14, Articles 1-4, Sections 4990 - 4998.7.
    • Psychologists: Chapter 6.6
    • MFTs: Division 2, Chapter 13, Articles 1-7, Sections 4980 - 4989.

    For complete California regulations online:



A strong Critique on the Duluth Model Interventions

  • In a 2009 article Corvo, Dutton and Chen assert that mental health professionals administering Duluth-type interventions with perpetrators of domestic violence are behaving unethically. Based on outcome research evidence, these interventions have little to no effect on rates of re-abuse, thus violating mental health professionals' ethical standards to provide evidence-based or effective interventions. The authors look at the ethical codes for Social Workers, Psychologists, Counselors, and Marriage and Family Therapists and how providing interventions with little to no effectiveness without adequate assessment and failure to connect assessment and treatment appropriate to clients' needs violate these professionals' ethical standards. They also look at how these programs run counter to the public's expectations of mental health's expertise in administering effective programs. Broader studies of risk factors for violence suggest that the Duluth-type interventions are based on faulty sociocultural causal models of violent behavior. The authors point to other causal factors: neurological vulnerabilities, personality disorder and/or substance abuse which, when targeted for intervention, lead to more successful outcomes. The authors urge for the outdated, ineffective Duluth-type programs to be reappraised and reformulated based on current knowledge and evidence. They urge for regulatory changes to support development of more evidence-based interventions for domestic violence as has occurred in other programs.

    Ref: Corvo, Dutton & Chen. (2009). "Do Duluth Model Interventions With Perpetrators of Domestic Violence Violate Mental Health Professional Ethics?" Ethics & Behavior, 19 (4), 323-340.

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Annotated Bibliographies



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