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Arnold A. Lazarus, Ph.D., ABPP and Ofer Zur, Ph.D., Editors

Springer, New York, 2002

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Foreword by Patrick H. DeLeon, Ph.D., J.D., M.P.H.
Afterword by Nicholas A. Cummings, Ph.D., Sc.D



This is the first authoritative and non-dogmatic book on non-sexual dual relationships in psychotherapy.

It demonstrates how non-sexual dual relationships can increase trust, familiarity, and therapeutic effectiveness.

It covers the clinical, ethical and legal aspects of non-sexual dual relationships and provides detailed guidelines on how to navigate the complexities of dual relationships.



"The opinions expressed in this publication go directly to the challenges we will collectively face as we enter the 21st century."

from the Foreword by Patrick H. DeLeon, Ph.D., J.D., ABPP, M.P.H.,     Past President, American Psychological Association

"This volume, through a series of diverse approaches and considerations, has dispelled for all time the monolithic notion that dual relationships are always harmful and should be avoided...remarkable and refreshing."

Nicholas A. Cummings, Ph.D., Sc.D., Ph.D., Sc.D.,    Former President, American Psychological Association


The book covers the following aspects of dual relationships:

  • Ethical, clinical and legal concerns.
  • Reflections on the ban against and dogma surrounding dual relationships and their constitutionality.
  • Boundaries, familiarity, friendships, power and relationships in psychotherapy.
  • Behavioral, cognitive, group, humanistic and feminist perspectives on dual relationships.
  • Ways in which dual relationships can enhance treatment outcome.
  • Ways in which dual relationships can decrease the chance of exploitation of and harm to patients.
  • Concerns of rural, military, church, deaf and other communities.
  • Clinical, ethical and legal guidelines for handling dual relationships.

Contributors (alphabetically) and topics include:

  • Barnett, J. E., Psy.D., & Yurtzenka B. A., Ph.D., on dual relationships in rural and other settings.
  • Dineen, T., Ph.D., on issues of power and therapy.
  • Ebert B., Ph.D., J.D., on the constitutionality of the ban on dual relationships.
  • Fay, A., M.D., on the case against boundaries in psychotherapy.
  • Fleer, J., Ph.D., J.D., on boards' and courts' concerns with dual relationships.
  • Goldin, M., D.SW. on post-therapy friendships.
  • Greenspan, M., M.Ed., on the feminist view of dual relationships.
  • Guthmann, D., Ed. D., Sandberg, K., L.A.D.C., on Dual Relationships in the deaf community.
  • Harris, R., Psy.D., on dual relationships in university counseling centers.
  • Hyman, S. M., MS, on dual relationships in university counseling centers.
  • Iosupovici, M., M.S.W., & Luke, E., Ph.D., on dual relationships in university counseling centers.
  • Kertesz R., M.D., Ph.D., on dual relationships in Latin America.
  • Lazarus, A., Ph.D., on problems with the boards.
  • Lazarus, A., Ph.D., on the problems with some boundaries in therapy.
  • Lazarus, A., Ph.D., on the illusion of therapists' power.
  • Lazarus, C., Ph.D., on therapists and matchmaking.
  • Llewellyn, R., Ph.D., on dual relationships within the church community.
  • Rubin, S., Ph.D., on the ethics of dual relationships.
  • Saunders, R., Ph.D., on concerns with the licensing boards.
  • Scheflin, A., J.D., on the legal aspects of dual relationships.
  • Thomas, L., Ph.D., on bartering.
  • Tomm, K., M.D., on re-thinking the ethics of dual relationships.
  • Walker, L., Ed.D., ABPP on dual relationships from a feminist perspective.
  • Williams, M., Ph.D., on dual relationships and the standard of care.
  • Williams, M., Ph.D., on dual relationships and litigation strategies.
  • Zur, O., Ph.D., on celebrating dual relationships.
  • Zur, O., Ph.D., on the truth of what the ethics codes say about dual relationships.
  • Zur, O., Ph.D., on how the consent against dual relationships has been manufactured.
  • Zur, O., Ph.D., on out of office experiences.
  • Zur, O., Ph.D., & Gonzalez, S., Psy. D., on multiple relationships in military psychology.



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