Sign In

CSS Submit Button Rollover



Fees, Insurance and Coding In Psychotherapy & Counseling


This resource page is part of an Online Course
Fees In Therapy: Clinical, Ethical & Management Considerations

CE Credits for Psychologists. CE Credits (CEUs) for LMFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.
CE Approvals by BBS-CA, ASWB, NBCC, NAADAC, CA-BRN & more.
Zur Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Zur Institute maintains responsibility for this program and its content.



Fees in Therapy

Top of Page

Medical & Medicare Billing

Top of Page

Insurance Reimbursement

Insurance Panels

Top of Page

ObamaCare - Affordable Health Care

Top of Page

Resources on Insurance Fraud

Top of Page

Meaning of Money

Top of Page


To Charge or Not to Charge: The Dilemma of Missed Sessions

Top of Page

Codes of Ethics on Fees

CPT Codes in Billing

ICD Codes (International Classification of Diseases)

  • ICD implementation: Aim for the Moving Target
    "First it was Oct. 1, 2013. Then Oct. 1, 2014. Now it's Oct. 1, 2015. Though the deadline for implementing the ICD-10-CM diagnostic coding system in the United States seems to be a moving target, it's never too soon to prepare for the switch. The April 1 Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, which postponed a drastic 24 percent Medicare rate cut, also included a single sentence that delayed implementation of the ICD-10-CM code to Oct. 1, 2015."
    From: APA's Monitor in Psychology, 6/2014
  • New law moves ICD-10-CM implementation to 2015
  • WHO

Additional References

  • Altmann, U., Wittmann, W. W., Steffanowski, A., von Heymann, F., Bruckmayer, E., Pfaffinger, I., & Steyer, R. (2014). Non-completion of insurance-funded outpatient psychotherapy: frequency, risk factors, outcome. Psychiatrische Praxis, 41(6), 305-312. DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1370172
  • Bishop, D. R. and Eppolito, J. M. (1992). The clinical management of client dynamics and fees for psychotherapy: Implications for research and practice. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 29(4), 545-553.
  • Blackmon W. D. (1993). Are psychoanalytic billing practices ethical? American Journal of Psychotherapy. 47(4), 613-620.
  • Clark, P., & Kimberly, C. (2014). Impact of fees among low-income clients in a training clinic. Contemporary Family Therapy, 36(3), 363-368. doi:10.1007/s10591-014-9303-9
  • Clark, P., & Sims, P. L. (2014). The practice of fee setting and collection: Implications for clinical training programs. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 42(5), 386-397.
  • Corbett, A. (2000). Psychotherapy for those who do not pay -understanding money in the therapeutic relationship.
  • Cummings, N. A. (1995). Unconscious fiscal convenience. Psychotherapy in Private Practice 14(2), 23-28.
  • Erle, J. B.(1993). On the setting of analytic fees. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 61, 106-10
  • Fay, A. (1995). Ethical implications of charging for missed sessions. Psychological Reports. 77, 1251-1259.
  • Fenichel, O. (1954). The drive to amass wealth, in The Collected Papers of Otto Fenichel: Second Series. New York, Norton, pp 89-108.
  • Friedman, R. (1991). Psychotherapy without fee, in Money and Mind, edited by Klebanow S, Lowenkopf EL. New York, Plenum, pp 207-221.
  • Geistwhite, R. (2000). Inadequacy and Indebtedness: No-Fee Psychotherapy in County Training Programs. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 9, 142-148. Retrieved from
  • Gedo, J. (1963). A note on non-payment of psychiatric fees. Int J Psychoanal, 44, 368-371.
  • Griswold, B. (2015). Navigating the Insurance Maze: The Therapist's Complete Guide to Working With Insurance. Retrieved from
  • Groman M. (2009) Lowering Fees in Hard Times: The Meaning Behind the Money, Retrieved from
  • Gutheil, T, Gabbard G. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: theoretical and risk-management dimensions. Am J Psychiatry; 150, 188-192.
  • Herrell, J. M. (1993). The therapeutic value of fees: what do practitioners believe? Journal of Mental Health Administration, 20, 270-277.
  • Herron, W. G. (1995). Visible and invisible psychotherapy fees. Psychotherapy in Private Practice. 14(2), 7-17.
  • Herron W.G., Rouslin Welt S. (1992). Money Matters: The Fee in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis. New York, Guilford.
  • Herron, W.G., and Sitkowski, S. (1986). Effects of fees on psychotherapy: what is the evidence? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 347-351.
  • Hill, M. & Kaschak, E. (Eds.). (1999). For love or money: Fee in feminist therapy. New York, NY: Haworth Press Inc.
  • Inman, D. J. & Bascue, L. O. (1984) Fee policies of psychologists in private practice. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 2, 3-12.
  • James, S., Freeman, K. R., Mayo, D., Riggs, M. L., Morgan, J. P., Schaepper, M. A., & Montgomery, S. B. (2015). Does insurance matter? Implementing dialectical behavior therapy with two groups of youth engaged in deliberate self-harm. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(4), 449-461. doi:10.1007/s10488-014-0588-7
  • Jensen, S. A., & Lowry, L. S. (2012). Payment schedules do not affect attendance/completion of group behavioral parent training. Psychological Services, 9, 101–109. doi:10.1037/a0027101.
  • Lin, M. (2013). Incentivizing Healthy Behaviors with Financial Rewards. TuftScope, 13(1), 28-29. Retrieved from
  • Lorand, S. and Console, W. A. (1958). : Therapeutic results in psycho-analytic treatment without fee: observation on therapeutic results. Int J Psychoanal, 39, 59-64.
  • Manos, N, (1982). Free psychotherapy: the therapist's and the patient's view. Psychother Psychosom; 37, 137-143.
  • Marteau, T. M., Ashcroft, R. E., & Oliver, A. (2009). Using financial incentives to achieve healthy behaviour. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 338. doi:10.1136/bmj.b1415.
  • Mellan, O. (1994) Money Harmony: Resolving Money Conflicts In your Life and Relationships, Walker and Co.: New York.
  • Mellan, O. (1995) Overcoming Overspending: A Winning Plan for Spenders and their Partners, Walker and Co.: New York
  • Motherwell, L. (2010). The vicissitudes of power and its relationship to money. In S. S. Fehr (Ed.), 101 interventions in group therapy (pp. 53–57). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
  • Myers, K. (2011). Show me the money: The problem of the therapist’s desire, subjectivity and relationship to the fee. In B. Berger & S. Newman (Eds.), Money talks: In therapy, society, and life (pp. 143–165). New York: Routledge.
  • Nash, J.L. and Cavenar, J. O. (1976). Free psychotherapy: an inquiry into resistance. Am J Psychiatry, 133, 1066-1069.
  • Needleman, J. (1994) Money and the Meaning of Life, New York Doubleday Books, 1994
  • Pasternack, S. A. and Treiger, P. (1976). The psychotherapy fee: an issue in residency training. Diseases of the Nervous System, 38, 913-916.
  • Pepper, R. (2004). Raising fees in group therapy: Some ethical and clinical implications. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 34, 141–152. doi:10.1023/B:JOCP.0000022313.41195.97.
  • Pope, K.S., Geller, J. D., and Wilkinson, L. (1975) Fee Assessment and Outpatient Psychotherapy, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 835-841.
  • Power, L. C. & Pilgrim, D. (1990) The fee in psychotherapy: Practitioners' accounts. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 3, 157-170.
  • Psychotherapy Finance 2000 Survey:
  • Soderlund, J. A century of fees. New Therapy, Retrieved from
  • Stanley, I. H., Chu, C., Brown, T. A., Sawyer, K. A., & Joiner, T. E. (2016). Improved Clinical Functioning for Patients Receiving Fee Discounts That Reward Treatment Engagement. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(1), 15-21. doi:10.1002/jclp.22236.
  • Trautt GM, Bloom L. J. (1982). Therapeugenic factors in psychotherapy: the effects of fee and title on credibility and attraction. J Clin Psychol, 38:274-279.
  • Treloar, H. R. (2010). Financial and ethical considerations for professionals in psychology. Ethics and Behavior, 20, 454–465. doi:10.1080/10508422.2010.521447.
  • Wood, W. D. (1982). Do fees help heal? J Clin Psychol; 38, 669-673.
  • Wortman, R. J. (1984) The relationship of psycho-analytically oriented psychologists' fee policies to personality, training and experience. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 2, 25-38.
  • Yoken, C. and Berman J. S. (1984). Does paying a fee for psychotherapy alter the effectiveness of treatment? J Consult Clin Psychol, 52, 254-260.
  • Zur, O. (2009). Therapy in times of financial crisis and global despair: Taking care of our clients and ourselves. The Central Valley Therapist, January-March, 2-6.
  • Zur, O. (2017). The Complete Fee-for-Service Private Practice Handbook (7th Ed.) Sonoma, CA: Zur Institute.

Top of Page




Instructions for requesting accommodations for disabilities

Refund and Course Exchange Policies

Share This:

Follow Us On:     TwitterFacebookLinkedInGoogle Plus

Click here to receive clinical updates by e-mail.

Online Courses  -  Zur Institute on YouTubeYouTube
Live Workshops  -  Forensic & Expert Witness Services - Consultations for Therapists
Private Practice Handbook  -  HIPAA Compliance Kit  -  Clinical Forms  -  CE Info  -  Discussions
Online Catalog -  Free Articles  - Boundaries & Dual Relationships  - General Public Resources  - Seminars For General Public
Organizational Discounts  -  About Us  -  FAQ  - Privacy, Disclaimer, Terms of Use, DMCA  -  ADA Policy & Grievance - CV
Home -  Contact Us  -  Site Map

Ofer Zur, Ph.D., Director

321 S. Main St. #29, Sebastopol, CA 95472
Contact Zur Institute, Inc.

© 1997-2017 Zur Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Privacy Statement, Disclaimer & Terms of Use.
Site design/maintenance by R&D Web