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Fees, Insurance and Ethics Codes In Psychotherapy & Counseling


This resource page is part of an Online Course
Fees In Therapy: Clinical, Ethical & Management Considerations

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Fees in Therapy

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Medical & Medicare Billing

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Insurance Reimbursement

Insurance Panels

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ObamaCare - Affordable Health Care

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Resources on Insurance Fraud

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Meaning of Money

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To Charge or Not to Charge: The Dilemma of Missed Sessions

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Codes of Ethics on Fees

Additional References

  • Acuff, C., Bennett, B.E., Bricklin, P.M., Canter, M.B., Knapp, S.J., Moldawsky, S., & Phelps, R. (1999). Considerations for ethical practice in managed care. Professional Psychology, 30, 563–575.
  • Alexander, G.C., Casalino, L.P., & Meltzer, D.O. (2003). Patient–physician communication about out-of-pocket costs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 953–958.
  • Alexander, G.C., Casalino, L.P., Tseng, C.-W., McFadden, D., & Meltzer, D.O. (2004). Barriers to patient–physician communication about out-of-pocket costs. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19, 856–860.
  • Altmann, U., Wittmann, W. W., Steffanowski, A., von Heymann, F., Bruckmayer, E., Pfaffinger, I., & Steyer, R. (2014). Non-completion of insurance-funded outpatient psychotherapy: frequency, risk factors, outcome. Psychiatrische Praxis, 41(6), 305-312. DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1370172
  • Austad, C.S., Hunter, R.D.A., & Morgan, T.C. (1998). Managed health care, ethics, and psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5, 67–76.
  • Barnett, J.E., & Walfish, S. (2012). Billing and collecting for mental health practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
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  • Bishop, D. R. and Eppolito, J. M. (1992). The clinical management of client dynamics and fees for psychotherapy: Implications for research and practice. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 29(4), 545-553.
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  • Brown, G.D., Hunter, W.G., Hesson, A., Davis, J.K., Kirby, C., Barnett, J.A., … Ubel, P.A. (2017). Discussing out-of-pocket expenses during clinical appointments: An observational study of patient–psychiatrist interactions. Psychiatric Services, 68, 610–617.
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  • Dear, B. (2016). Getting Paid: a guide to therapy fees. Retrieved from .
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  • Fay, A. (1995). Ethical implications of charging for missed sessions. Psychological Reports. 77, 1251-1259.
  • Fehr, S.S. (Ed.). (2012). The vicissitudes of power and its relationship to money. 101 interventions in group therapy. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Fenichel, O. (1954). The drive to amass wealth, in The Collected Papers of Otto Fenichel: Second Series. New York, Norton, pp 89-108.
  • Field, R., & Hemmings, A. (2007). The role of money in the therapeutic exchange. In A. Hemmings & R. Field (Eds.), Counselling and psychotherapy in contemporary private practice (pp. 140–157). New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Friedman, R. (1991). Psychotherapy without fee, in Money and Mind, edited by Klebanow S, Lowenkopf EL. New York, Plenum, pp 207-221.
  • Furnham, A., (2014). The Psychology of Money. London: Routledge,
  • Geistwhite, R. (2000). Inadequacy and Indebtedness: No-Fee Psychotherapy in County Training Programs. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 9, 142-148. Retrieved from
  • Gedo, J. (1963). A note on non-payment of psychiatric fees. Int J Psychoanal, 44, 368-371.
  • Griswold, B. (2015). Navigating the Insurance Maze: The Therapist's Complete Guide to Working With Insurance. Retrieved from
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  • Herrell, J. M. (1993). The therapeutic value of fees: what do practitioners believe? Journal of Mental Health Administration, 20, 270-277.
  • Herron, W. G. (1995). Visible and invisible psychotherapy fees. Psychotherapy in Private Practice. 14(2), 7-17.
  • Herron W.G., Rouslin Welt S. (1992). Money Matters: The Fee in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis. New York, Guilford.
  • Herron, W.G., and Sitkowski, S. (1986). Effects of fees on psychotherapy: what is the evidence? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 347-351.
  • Hill, M. & Kaschak, E. (Eds.). (1999). For love or money: Fee in feminist therapy. New York, NY: Haworth Press Inc.
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  • Holmes, J. (1998). Money and psychotherapy: Object, metaphor or dream. International Journal of Psychotherapy, 3, 123–133.
  • Inman, D. J. & Bascue, L. O. (1984) Fee policies of psychologists in private practice. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 2, 3-12.
  • James, S., Freeman, K. R., Mayo, D., Riggs, M. L., Morgan, J. P., Schaepper, M. A., & Montgomery, S. B. (2015). Does insurance matter? Implementing dialectical behavior therapy with two groups of youth engaged in deliberate self-harm. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(4), 449-461. doi:10.1007/s10488-014-0588-7
  • Jensen, S. A., & Lowry, L. S. (2012). Payment schedules do not affect attendance/completion of group behavioral parent training. Psychological Services, 9, 101–109. doi:10.1037/a0027101.
  • Koocher, G. P. (2005). Billing issues. In G. P. Koocher, J. C. Norcross, & S. S. Hill, III. (Eds.). Psychologists’ desk reference (2nd ed., pp. 657-661). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Koocher, G. P. & Soibatian, C. (2017). Understanding Fees in Mental Health Practice. Practice Innovations, 2/3, 123-135.
  • Lecker, C. (2016). Client perceptions of the fee in community mental health centers. Dissertation Abstracts International: B, The Sciences and Engineering, 76, 2016.
  • Lin, M. (2013). Incentivizing Healthy Behaviors with Financial Rewards. TuftScope, 13(1), 28-29. Retrieved from
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  • Lovinger, R.J. (1978). Obstacles in psychotherapy: Setting a fee in the initial contact. Professional Psychology, 9, 350–352.
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  • Motherwell, L. (2010). The vicissitudes of power and its relationship to money. In S. S. Fehr (Ed.), 101 interventions in group therapy (pp. 53–57). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
  • Myers, K. (2011). Show me the money: The problem of the therapist’s desire, subjectivity and relationship to the fee. In B. Berger & S. Newman (Eds.), Money talks: In therapy, society, and life (pp. 143–165). New York: Routledge.
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  • Stanley, I. H., Chu, C., Brown, T. A., Sawyer, K. A., & Joiner, T. E. (2016). Improved Clinical Functioning for Patients Receiving Fee Discounts That Reward Treatment Engagement. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(1), 15-21.
  • Tinter, J. (2009). Down low and dirty: Talking about how money matters, especially on a sliding scale. In A. Carrington (Ed.), Taboo or not taboo? Forbidden thoughts, forbidden acts in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy (pp. 242–259). London, England: Karnac Books.
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  • Yoken, C. and Berman J. S. (1984). Does paying a fee for psychotherapy alter the effectiveness of treatment? J Consult Clin Psychol, 52, 254-260.
  • Zur, O. (2009). Therapy in times of financial crisis and global despair: Taking care of our clients and ourselves. The Central Valley Therapist, January-March, 2-6.
  • Zur, O. (2017a). The Complete Fee-for-Service Private Practice Handbook (7th Ed.) Sonoma, CA: Zur Institute.
  • Zur, O. (2017b). Ethics codes on fees in psychotherapy and counseling. Retrieved from

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